6,247 Works

Strengthening Theoretical Testing in Criminology Using Agent-based Modeling

© The Author(s) 2014. Objectives: The Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency (JRCD) has published important contributions to both criminological theory and associated empirical tests. In this article, we consider some of the challenges associated with traditional approaches to social science research, and discuss a complementary approach that is gaining popularity—agent-based computational modeling—that may offer new opportunities to strengthen theories of crime and develop insights into phenomena of interest.Method: Two literature reviews are completed....

Diverse captive non-human primates with phytanic acid-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial phytanic acid levels in their red blood cells

Background: Humans and rodents with impaired phytanic acid (PA) metabolism can accumulate toxic stores of PA that have deleterious effects on multiple organ systems. Ruminants and certain fish obtain PA from the microbial degradation of dietary chlorophyll and/or through chlorophyll-derived precursors. In contrast, humans cannot derive PA from chlorophyll and instead normally obtain it only from meat, dairy, and fish products. Results: Captive apes and Old world monkeys had significantly higher red blood cell (RBC)...

Perceptions of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners and How a Pulmonary Function Printout Influenced Practice

The rate of asthma in the pediatric population has risen over the last two decades and is now considered to be the most common serious chronic disease in children and adolescents as well as a serious public health concern. In one suburban, Pennsylvania nurse-managed clinic, a group of pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs), noted an increase in the number of children with asthma and purchased a pulmonary function machine (Spirometer). The purpose of this paper is...

R-Roscovitine (Seliciclib) prevents DNA damage-induced cyclin A1 upregulation and hinders non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair

Background: CDK-inhibitors can diminish transcriptional levels of cell cycle-related cyclins through the inhibition of E2F family members and CDK7 and 9. Cyclin A1, an E2F-independent cyclin, is strongly upregulated under genotoxic conditions and functionally was shown to increase NHEJ activity. Cyclin A1 outcompetes with cyclin A2 for CDK2 binding, possibly redirecting its activity towards DNA repair. To see if we could therapeutically block this switch, we analyzed the effects of the CDK-inhibitor R-Roscovitine on the...

Development of the Healthy Pathways Child-Report Scales

Purpose The Child Health and Illness Profile (CHIP) has separate child (6-11 years) and adolescent (12-21 years) editions that measure youth's self-assessed health, illness, and well-being. The purpose of this study was to revise the CHIP by combining the two editions to create the Healthy Pathways Child-Report Scales. Methods We modified the original CHIP domains of Comfort, Risk Avoidance, Satisfaction, and Resilience to reflect advances in child health conceptualization. Classical test and item response theory...

A novel dual signaling axis for NSP 5a3a induced apoptosis in head and neck carcinoma

NSP 5a3a is a novel structural protein found to be over-expressed in certain cancer cell lines in-vitro such as Hela, Saos-2, and MCF-7 while barely detectable levels in normal body tissues except for Testis. This particular isoform has been known to interact with cyto- nuclear proteins B23, known to be involved in multi-faceted cellular processes such as cell division, apoptosis, ribosome biogenesis, and rRNA processing, as well as with hnRNP-L, known to be involved with...

Circulating tumor cells as early predictors of metastatic spread in breast cancer patients with limited metastatic dissemination

© 2014 Giuliano et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Introduction: Traditional factors currently used for prognostic stratification do not always adequately predict treatment response and disease evolution in advanced breast cancer patients. Therefore, the use of blood-based markers, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), represents a promising complementary strategy for disease monitoring. In this retrospective study, we explored the role of CTC counts as predictors of disease evolution in breast cancer patients with limited metastatic...

High-resolution imaging reveals new features of nuclear export of mRNA through the nuclear pore complexes

The nuclear envelope (NE) of eukaryotic cells provides a physical barrier for messenger RNA (mRNA) and the associated proteins (mRNPs) traveling from sites of transcription in the nucleus to locations of translation processing in the cytoplasm. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the NE serve as a dominant gateway for nuclear export of mRNA. However, the fundamental characterization of export dynamics of mRNPs through the NPC has been hindered by several technical limits. First, the...

Association between sense of coherence and health-related quality of life among primary care patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

Background: Sense of Coherence (SOC) is a measure of an individual's capacity to use various coping mechanisms and resources when faced with a stressor. Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent and disabling conditions in clinical practice. This study examines the extent to which a strong SOC is associated with less pain and better health related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with chronic pain.Methods: We analyzed data from the Stepped Care to Optimize...

Image-level and group-level models for Drosophila gene expression pattern annotation

Background: Drosophila melanogaster has been established as a model organism for investigating the developmental gene interactions. The spatio-temporal gene expression patterns of Drosophila melanogaster can be visualized by in situ hybridization and documented as digital images. Automated and efficient tools for analyzing these expression images will provide biological insights into the gene functions, interactions, and networks. To facilitate pattern recognition and comparison, many web-based resources have been created to conduct comparative analysis based on the...

Automated annotation of developmental stages of Drosophila embryos in images containing spatial patterns of expression

Motivation: Drosophila melanogaster is a major model organism for investigating the function and interconnection of animal genes in the earliest stages of embryogenesis. Today, images capturing Drosophila gene expression patterns are being produced at a higher throughput than ever before. The analysis of spatial patterns of gene expression is most biologically meaningful when images from a similar time point during development are compared. Thus, the critical first step is to determine the developmental stage of...

Using stable isotope compositions of animal tissues to infer trophic interactions in Gulf of Mexico lower slope seep communities

We analyzed the tissue carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope contents of macrofaunal communities associated with vestimentiferan tubeworms and bathymodiolin mussels from the Gulf of Mexico lower continental slope (970-2800 m). Shrimp in the genus Alvinocaris associated with vestimentiferans from shallow (530 m) and deep (1400-2800 m) sites were used to test the hypothesis that seep animals derive a greater proportion of their nutrition from seeps (i.e. a lower proportion from the surface) at greater...

Controls on bacterial and archaeal community structure and greenhouse gas production in natural, mined, and restored Canadian peatlands

Northern peatlands are important global C reservoirs, largely because of their slow rates of microbial C mineralization. Particularly in sites that are heavily influenced by anthropogenic disturbances, there is scant information about microbial ecology and whether or not microbial community structure influences greenhouse gas production. This work characterized communities of bacteria and archaea using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and functional genes across eight natural, mined, or restored...

DNA-demethylating and anti-tumor activity of synthetic miR-29b mimics in multiple myeloma

Aberrant DNA methylation plays a relevant role in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that recently emerged as master regulator of gene expression by targeting protein-coding mRNAs. However, miRNAs involvement in the regulation of the epigenetic machinery and their potential use as therapeutics in MM remain to be investigated. Here, we provide evidence that the expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) is deregulated in MM cells.Moreover, we...

Intrinsic disorder in putative protein sequences

© 2012 Midic and Obradovic; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Background: Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and regions (IDRs) perform a variety of crucial biological functions despite lacking stable tertiary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. State-of-the-art sequencebased predictors of intrinsic disorder are achieving per-residue accuracies over 80%. In a genome-wide study of intrinsic disorder in human genome we observed a big difference in predicted disorder content between confirmed and putative human proteins. We investigated a hypothesis...

Visualization of actin polymerization in invasive structures of macrophages and carcinoma cells using photoconvertible β-actin - Dendra2 fusion proteins

Actin polymerization controls a range of cellular processes, from intracellular trafficking to cell motility and invasion. Generation and elongation of free barbed ends defines the regions of actively polymerizing actin in cells and, consequently, is of importance in the understanding of the mechanisms through which actin dynamics are regulated. Herein we present a method that does not involve cell permeabilization and provides direct visualization of growing barbed ends using photoswitchable β-actin - Dendra2 constructs expressed...

Racial differences in tumor necrosis factor-α-induced endothelial microparticles and interleukin-6 production

African Americans (AA) tend to have heightened systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are released from activated/apoptotic endothelial cells (EC) when stimulated by inflammation. The purpose of our study was to assess EMP responses to inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, SOD) conditions in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) obtained from AA and Caucasians. EMPs were measured under four conditions: control (basal), TNF-α, SOD, and TNF-α + SOD. Culture supernatant was collected...

Evolutionary Changes of the Target Sites of Two MicroRNAs Encoded in the Hox Gene Cluster of Drosophila and Other Insect Species

MicroRNAs (miRs) are noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In animals, the target sites of a miR are generally located in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of messenger RNAs. However, how the target sites change during evolution is largely unknown. MiR-iab-4 and miR-iab-4as are known to regulate the expression of two Hox genes, Abd-A and Ubx, in Drosophila melanogaster. We have therefore studied the evolutionary changes of these two miR genes...

Origins and Evolution of MicroRNA Genes in Drosophila Species

MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. To obtain some insights into the origins and evolutionary patterns of miR genes, we have identified miR genes in the genomes of 12 Drosophila species by bioinformatics approaches and examined their evolutionary changes. The results showed that the extant and ancestral Drosophila species had more than 100 miR genes and frequent gains and losses of miR genes have occurred during evolution. Although many miR genes appear...

Visual conflict and cognitive load modify postural responses to vibrotactile noise

Background: Underlying the increased incidence of falls during multitasking is a reduced ability to detect or attend to the sensory information signaling postural instability. Adding noise to a biological system has been shown to enhance the detection and transmission of weakened or sub-threshold cutaneous signals. If stochastic resonance is to become an effective adjunct to rehabilitation, we need to determine whether vibrotactile noise can be effective when added to an environment presenting with other sensory...

High serum miR-19a levels are associated with inflammatory breast cancer and are predictive of favorable clinical outcome in patients with metastatic HER2+ inflammatory breast cancer

Introduction: Altered serum microRNA (miRNA) levels may be correlated with a dysregulated expression pattern in parental tumor tissue and reflect the clinical evolution of disease. The overexpression of miR-21, miR-10b, and miR-19a is associated with the acquisition of malignant characteristics (increased tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, dissemination, and metastasis); thus, we determined their utility as serum biomarkers for aggressive breast cancer (HER2-overexpressed or -amplified [HER2+] and inflammatory breast cancer [IBC]). Experimental Design: In this prospective...

Intracellular calcium movements during relaxation and recovery of superfast muscle fibers of the toadfish swimbladder

The mating call of the Atlantic toadfish is generated by bursts of high-frequency twitches of the superfast twitch fibers that surround the swimbladder. At 16°C, a calling period can last several hours, with individual 80-100-Hz calls lasting ~500 ms interleaved with silent periods (intercall intervals) lasting ~10 s. To understand the intracellular movements of Ca2+ during the intercall intervals, superfast fibers were microinjected with fluo-4, a high-affinity fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, and stimulated by trains of...

Apparent variation in Neanderthal admixture among African populations is consistent with gene flow from non-African populations

Recent studies have found evidence of introgression from Neanderthals into modern humans outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Given the geographic range of Neanderthals, the findings have been interpreted as evidence of gene exchange between Neanderthals and modern humans descended from the Out-of-Africa (OOA) migration. Here, we examine an alternative interpretation in which the introgression occurred earlier within Africa, between ancestors or relatives of Neanderthals and a subset of African modern humans who were the ancestors of...

Reduced expression of MECP2 affects cell commitment and maintenance in neurons by triggering senescence: New perspective for Rett syndrome

MECP2 protein binds preferentially to methylated CpGs and regulates gene expression by causing changes in chromatin structure. The mechanism by which impaired MECP2 activity can induce pathological abnormalities in the nervous system of patients with Rett syndrome (RTT) is not clearly understood. To gain further insight into the role of MECP2 in human neurogenesis, we compared the neural differentiation process in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from a RTT patient and from healthy donors. We...

General anesthetics predicted to block the GLIC pore with micromolar affinity

Although general anesthetics are known to modulate the activity of ligand-gated ion channels in the Cys-loop superfamily, there is at present neither consensus on the underlying mechanisms, nor predictive models of this modulation. Viable models need to offer quantitative assessment of the relative importance of several identified anesthetic binding sites. However, to date, precise affinity data for individual sites has been challenging to obtain by biophysical means. Here, the likely role of pore block inhibition...

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