4,150 Works

Essential or Expendable Supports? Assessing the Relationship between School Climate and Student Outcomes

Sociologists of education argue that school organizational practices and climates influence students’ academic outcomes. The predominant measure of school climates are aggregated student and teacher survey reports, which are diffusing into official educational statistics. Unfortunately, most studies are unable to rigorously assess the causal effects of these measures of school organization. This study does so by examining the effects of school climate experienced in grades 4–8 by different cohorts of students in Chicago Public Schools...

MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc) and high critical current density (Jc). The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to...

Restrictive state laws aimed at immigrants: Effects on enrollment in the food stamp program by U.S. citizen children in immigrant families

This paper examines whether a chilling effect of restrictive state laws aimed at immigrants creates a barrier to enrollment in the food stamp program (now called the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or SNAP) for U.S. citizen children in low-income immigrant families. This analysis looks at 20 states in the continental United States from 2000 to 2008 that were either at or above the U.S. average for percentage of foreign-born population, or states that ranked in...

Reward and punishment sensitivity and disordered eating behaviors in men and women

Background: Reward and punishment sensitivities have been identified as potential contributors to binge eating and compensatory behaviors, though few studies have examined gender differences in these behaviors. Method: A college-aged sample (N = 1,022) completed both the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) and Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Results: Rates of binge eating were similar in males and females. Among those reporting compensatory behaviors, women reported engaging in compensatory behaviors more frequently than...

Neural measures of anticipatory bodily attention in children: Relations with executive function

The ability to selectively direct attention to a certain location or modality is a key neurocognitive skill. One important facet of selective attention is anticipation, a foundational biological construct that bridges basic perceptual processes and higher-order cognition. The current study focuses on the neural correlates of bodily anticipation in 6- to 8-year-old children using a task involving tactile stimulation. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity over sensorimotor cortex was measured after a visual cue directed children to monitor...

Krüppel-Like Factors: Crippling and Uncrippling Metabolic Pathways

Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are deoxyribonucleic acid–binding transcriptional factors that regulate various pathways that control metabolism and other cellular mechanisms. Various KLF isoforms have been associated with cellular, organ, or systemic metabolism. Altered expression or activation of KLFs has been linked to metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity and diabetes, as well as with heart failure. This review article summarizes the metabolic functions of KLFs, as well as the networks of different KLF isoforms that jointly regulate...

Tonic Neuromuscular Processing Affects Postural Adaptation Differently in Aging and Parkinson's Disease

The combination of phasic and tonic neuromuscular processes are involved in the maintenance of normal upright posture. The latter is of particular importance in some pathologies, such as Parkinson's Disease (PD), which is known by one of its cardinal symptoms—tonic dysfunction (i.e., rigidity). Changes in tonic function may also occur during healthy aging. In this investigation, somatosensory input was manipulated by changing the support surface orientation for prolonged periods of quiet stance (QS). The aim...

Nature of the metal-insulator transition in few-unit-cell-thick LaNiO3 films

The nature of the metal-insulator transition in thin films and superlattices of LaNiO3 only a few unit cells in thickness remains elusive despite tremendous effort. Quantum confinement and epitaxial strain have been evoked as the mechanisms, although other factors such as growth-induced disorder, cation non-stoichiometry, oxygen vacancies, and substrate–film interface quality may also affect the observable properties of ultrathin films. Here we report results obtained for near-ideal LaNiO3 films with different thicknesses and terminations grown...

An Implantable Ultrasonically-Powered Micro-Light-Source (µLight) for Photodynamic Therapy

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment modality that can selectively target unresectable tumors through optical activation of cytotoxic agents, thus reducing many side effects associated with systemic administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, limited light penetration into most biological tissues have so far prevented its widespread adoption beyond dermatology and a few other oncological applications in which a fiber optic can be threaded to the desired locations via an endoscopic approach (e.g., bladder). In...

The Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine N-Oxide Links Vascular Dysfunctions and the Autoimmune Disease Rheumatoid Arthritis

Diet and microbiota each have a direct impact on many chronic, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. As the field develops, a new perspective is emerging. The effects of diet may depend on the microbiota composition of the intestine. A diet that is rich in choline, red meat, dairy, or egg may promote the growth, or change the composition, of microbial species. The microbiota, in turn, may produce metabolites that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This...

Reducing Wound Hemorrhage: Use of Bilayer Collagen Matrix in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Summary: Donor site preparation is a critical step before the application of an autologous split-thickness skin graft (STSG). Comorbidities can lead to complications and graft loss, including that due to hematoma. In this case, a bilayer collagen matrix was used as a temporary wound dressing in a 25-year-old woman with active chronic myelogenous leukemia. She presented with a bleeding diathesis and spontaneous intramuscular and intracompartmental hematomas of the right leg. She experienced ongoing high-volume blood...

Integrating environmental and neighborhood factors in MaxEnt modeling to predict species distributions: A case study of Aedes albopictus in southeastern Pennsylvania

Aedes albopictus is a viable vector for several infectious diseases such as Zika, West Nile, Dengue viruses and others. Originating from Asia, this invasive species is rapidly expanding into North American temperate areas and urbanized places causing major concerns for public health. Previous analyses show that warm temperatures and high humidity during the mosquito season are ideal conditions for A. albopictus development, while its distribution is correlated with population density. To better understand A. albopictus...

Rumor and Gossip: The Social Psychology of Hearsay

Presents findings from a sociological and psychological study of rumor, gossip, and hearsay, showing that the distribution patterns of these communication forms closely parallel characteristics and rules of economic exchange, and that the consumption of rumor and gossip corresponds to the consumption of goods and services. Recommendations and guidelines for rumor control centers based on World War II clinics are presented.

The roles of Lewis acidic additives in organotransition metal catalysis

We describe recent examples of prominent reactions in organic synthesis that involve transition metal and Lewis acid cocatalysts. Introducing Lewis acid additives to transition metal catalysis can enable new reactivity or improve activity and selectivity of an existing process. Several studies are highlighted to illustrate the possible roles of Lewis acids in catalytic mechanisms. The uses of Lewis acid additives in bond-breaking catalysis (C–C activation, C–H activation, and hydrogenolysis reactions) and bond-forming catalysis (Au-catalysed alkyne...

Librarians Flip Out: Leveraging librarian's skills to teach self-directed learning competencies

Poster presented at Innovations in Medical Education conference, Los Angeles, CA.

Clinical Study: Sustained Weight Loss with Vagal Nerve Blockade but Not with Sham: 18-Month Results of the ReCharge Trial

Background/Objectives. Vagal block therapy (vBloc) is effective for moderate to severe obesity at one year. Subjects/Methods. The ReCharge trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of 239 participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40 to 45 kg/m or 35 to 40 kg/m with one or more obesity-related conditions. Interventions were implantation of either vBloc or Sham devices and weight management counseling. Mixed models assessed percent excess weight loss (%EWL) and total weight loss...

Imidazolyl-phenyl (IMP) anions: a modular structure for tuning solubility and coordinating ability

The effect of counteranion upon a cation’s solution-phase reactivity depends on a subtle interplay of weak interactions. Although these effects are widely appreciated in synthesis and catalysis, probing and controlling anion-cation interactions remains a significant challenge. Here we report the synthesis, characterization and reactivity of the IMP anions, a family of anions with a coordinating ability that can be tuned for a given application. The anions are robust, compatible with both strongly basic and acidic...

Librarians Do It Differently: Comparative Usability Testing of Students and Library Staff

A paper presented at the Library Assessment Conference, which took place October 24-27, 2019, in Baltimore, MD.

Integrating an Information Literacy Quiz into the Learning Management System

The Claremont Colleges Library Instruction Services Department developed a Quiz that could be integrated into the consortial learning management software to accompany a local online, open-source IL tutorial. The Quiz is integrated into individual course pages, allowing students to receive a grade for completion and improving buy-in at the faculty and student level. Piloted in nine first-year classes in Fall 2012 then revised and launched in Spring 2013, the Quiz has given the Library valuable...

Using mixed methods evaluation data to improve an anesthesiology resident research curriculum

Poster presented at Medical Library Association conference, Chicago, IL.

Preoperative Medical Weight Management in Bariatric Surgery: a Review and Reconsideration

Bariatric surgery is the most robust treatment for extreme obesity. The impact of preoperative medical weight management sessions designed, in theory, with the primary goal of promoting preoperative weight loss, is unclear. This paper reviews studies that have investigated the relationship between preoperative weight loss and bariatric surgical outcomes, both with respect to postoperative weight loss and complications. We conclude that the most robust of preoperative interventions has not been implemented or evaluated in a...

Obesity and Sexual Functioning

Obstructing justice: the chilling effect of ICE's arrests of immigrants at Pennsylvania's courthouses

This study finds that the problems related to ICE enforcement at courthouses are widespread across Pennsylvania. In particular: (1) ICE is effecting arrests in and around courthouses; (2) courthouse personnel are collaborating with ICE by asking about immigration status, providing information, or assisting with ICE arrests; and (3) immigrants fear going to court because of these ICE enforcement activities.

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