428 Works

Meta-analysis of reward processing in major depressive disorder reveals distinct abnormalities within the reward circuit

Abstract Many neuroimaging studies have investigated reward processing dysfunction in major depressive disorder. These studies have led to the common idea that major depressive disorder is associated with blunted responses within the reward circuit, particularly in the ventral striatum. Yet, the link between major depressive disorder and reward-related responses in other regions remains inconclusive, thus limiting our understanding of the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. To address this issue, we performed a coordinate-based meta-analysis of...

Measurement of the single-spin asymmetry in quasi-elastic 3He↑(e,e′n) scattering at 0.4

© 2019 The Authors Due to the lack of free neutron targets, studies of the structure of the neutron are typically made by scattering electrons from either 2H or 3He targets. In order to extract useful neutron information from a 3He target, one must understand how the neutron in a 3He system differs from a free neutron by taking into account nuclear effects such as final state interactions and meson exchange currents. The target single...

Measurements of the transverse-momentum-dependent cross sections of J /ψ production at mid-rapidity in proton+proton collisions at s =510 and 500 GeV with the STAR detector

© 2019 authors. Published by the American Physical Society. We present measurements of the differential cross sections of inclusive J/ψ meson production as a function of transverse momentum (pTJ/ψ) using the μ+μ- and e+e- decay channels in proton+proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 510 and 500 GeV, respectively, recorded by the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The measurement from the μ+μ- channel is for 0

Measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the quasi-elastic He→3(e→,ep) process

© 2018 The Author We report on a precise measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in electron-induced breakup of He3 proceeding to pd and ppn final states, performed in quasi-elastic kinematics at Q2=0.25(GeV/c)2 for missing momenta up to 250MeV/c. These observables represent highly sensitive tools to investigate the electromagnetic and spin structure of He3 and the relative importance of two- and three-body effects involved in the breakup reaction dynamics. The measured asymmetries cannot be satisfactorily reproduced by...

Revealing Color Forces with Transverse Polarized Electron Scattering

© 2019 American Physical Society. The Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment measured two double spin asymmetries using a polarized proton target and polarized electron beam at two beam energies, 4.7 and 5.9 GeV. A large-acceptance open-configuration detector package identified scattered electrons at 40° and covered a wide range in Bjorken x (0.3

Global advances in Value-Based Payment and their implications for global health management education, development, and practice

© 2019 Counte, Howard, Chang and Aaronson. Global advances in health policy reform, health system improvement and health management education and practice need to be closely aligned to successfully change national health policies and improve the performance of health care delivery organizations. This paper describes the globally acknowledged need for incentive-based organizational performance and relevant implications for health care management education (HCME) and practice. It also outlines the major rationale underlying Value-Based Payment (VBP) or...

First results on nucleon resonance photocouplings from the γp → π+π−p reaction

© 2018 The Author We report the first experimental measurements of the nine 1-fold differential cross sections for the γp→π+π−p reaction, obtained with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The measurements cover the invariant mass range of the final state hadrons from 1.6 GeV

Daily snacking occasions, snack size, and snack energy density as predictors of diet quality among us children aged 2 to 5 years

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Whether snacks help young children meet nutritional needs or merely contribute to excessive intakes is debated. This research evaluated associations of snacking with dietary quality among US preschoolers (two to five years, n = 4217) in the 2005–2016 National Health Examination Survey (NHANES). Snacking occasions, size, and energy density (ED) were estimated from two 24-hr dietary recalls. Diet quality indices included the 2015 Healthy Eating Index...

Stretched or noded orbital densities and self-interaction correction in density functional theory

© 2019 Author(s). Semilocal approximations to the density functional for the exchange-correlation energy of a many-electron system necessarily fail for lobed one-electron densities, including not only the familiar stretched densities but also the less familiar but closely related noded ones. The Perdew-Zunger (PZ) self-interaction correction (SIC) to a semilocal approximation makes that approximation exact for all one-electron ground- or excited-state densities and accurate for stretched bonds. When the minimization of the PZ total energy is...

Covariate-adjusted survival analyses in propensity-score matched samples: Imputing potential time-to-event outcomes

© The Author(s) 2018. Matching on an estimated propensity score is frequently used to estimate the effects of treatments from observational data. Since the 1970s, different authors have proposed methods to combine matching at the design stage with regression adjustment at the analysis stage when estimating treatment effects for continuous outcomes. Previous work has consistently shown that the combination has generally superior statistical properties than either method by itself. In biomedical and epidemiological research, survival...

Extending Rotational Coherence of Interacting Polar Molecules in a Spin-Decoupled Magic Trap

© 2018 American Physical Society. Superpositions of rotational states in polar molecules induce strong, long-range dipolar interactions. Here we extend the rotational coherence by nearly 1 order of magnitude to 8.7(6) ms in a dilute gas of polar Na23K40 molecules in an optical trap. We demonstrate spin-decoupled magic trapping, which cancels first-order and reduces second-order differential light shifts. The latter is achieved with a dc electric field that decouples nuclear spin, rotation, and trapping light...

Improved measurement of the longitudinal spin transfer to Λ and Λ¯ hyperons in polarized proton-proton collisions at s=200 GeV

The longitudinal spin transfer $D_{LL}$ to $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ hyperons produced in high-energy polarized proton--proton collisions is expected to be sensitive to the helicity distribution functions of strange quarks and anti-quarks of the proton, and to longitudinally polarized fragmentation functions. We report an improved measurement of $D_{LL}$ from data obtained at a center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV with the STAR detector at RHIC. The data have an approximately twelve times larger figure-of-merit than...

Evolution and structure of proteins and proteomes

This themed issue centered on the evolution and structure of proteins and proteomes is comprised of seven published manuscripts. [...]

Dysregulation of Neuronal Cholesterol Homeostasis upon Exposure to HIV-1 Tat and Cocaine Revealed by RNA-Sequencing

© 2018, The Author(s). HIV-1 Tat protein is released from HIV-1-infected cells and can enter non-permissive cells including neurons. Tat disrupts neuronal homeostasis and may contribute to the neuropathogenesis in people living with HIV (PLWH). The use of cocaine by PLWH exacerbates neuronal dysfunction. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which Tat and cocaine facilitate alterations in neuronal homeostatic processes. Bioinformatic interrogation of the results from RNA deep sequencing of rat hippocampal neurons exposed to...

Wired to be connected? Links between mobile technology engagement, intertemporal preference and frontostriatal white matter connectivity

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press. Youth around the world are increasingly dependent on social media and mobile smartphones. This phenomenon has generated considerable speculation regarding the impacts of extensive technology engagement on cognitive development and how these habits might be 'rewiring' the brains of those growing up in a heavily digital era. In an initial study conducted with healthy young adults, we utilized behavioral and self-report measures to demonstrate associations between...

A new clustering and nomenclature for beta turns derived from high-resolution protein structures

© 2019 Dingwell, Cusumano. Protein loops connect regular secondary structures and contain 4-residue beta turns which represent 63% of the residues in loops. The commonly used classification of beta turns (Type I, I’, II, II’, VIa1, VIa2, VIb, and VIII) was developed in the 1970s and 1980s from analysis of a small number of proteins of average resolution, and represents only two thirds of beta turns observed in proteins (with a generic class Type IV...

On dynamic pitch benefit for speech recognition in speech masker

© 2018 Shen and Souza. Previous work demonstrated that dynamic pitch (i.e., pitch variation in speech) aids speech recognition in various types of noises. While this finding suggests dynamic pitch enhancement in target speech can benefit speech recognition in noise, it is of importance to know what noise characteristics affect dynamic pitch benefit, and who will benefit from enhanced dynamic pitch cues. Following our recent finding that temporal modulation in noise influences dynamic pitch benefit,...

FPAN: Fine-grained and progressive attention localization network for data retrieval

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. The localization of the target object for data retrieval is a key issue in the Intelligent and Connected Transportation Systems (ICTS). However, due to the lack of intelligence in the traditional transportation system, it takes a lot of resources to manually retrieve and locate the queried objects from a large number of images. In order to solve this issue, we propose an effective method for query-based object localization, which uses artificial...

Niche partitioning of a pathogenic microbiome driven by chemical gradients

© 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved. Environmental microbial communities are stratified by chemical gradients that shape the structure and function of these systems. Similar chemical gradients exist in the human body, but how they influence these microbial systems is more poorly understood. Understanding these effects can be particularly important for dysbiotic shifts in microbiome structure that are often associated with disease. We show that pH and oxygen strongly partition the microbial community from a...

Discovery of topological nodal-line fermionic phase in a magnetic material GdSbTe

© 2018, The Author(s). Topological Dirac semimetals with accidental band touching between conduction and valence bands protected by time reversal and inversion symmetry are at the frontier of modern condensed matter research. A majority of discovered topological semimetals are nonmagnetic and conserve time reversal symmetry. Here we report the experimental discovery of an antiferromagnetic topological nodal-line semimetallic state in GdSbTe using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our systematic study reveals the detailed electronic structure of the paramagnetic...

Longitudinal double-spin asymmetries for pi(0)s in the forward direction for 510 GeV polarized pp collisions

The STAR Collaboration reports measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, $A_{LL}$, for neutral pions produced at forward directions in polarized proton-proton collisions, at a center-of-mass energy of $510$ GeV. Results are given for transverse momenta in the range $2

AOA-based three-dimensional multi-target localization in industrial WSNs for LOS conditions

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. High-precision and fast relative positioning of a large number of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs) is crucial for smart industrial wireless sensor networks (SIWSNs). However, positioning multiple targets simultaneously in three-dimensional (3D) space has been less explored. In this paper, we propose a new approach, called Angle-of-Arrival (AOA) based Three-dimensional Multi-target Localization (ATML). The approach utilizes two anchor nodes (ANs) with antenna arrays to receive the spread...

Shipboard design and fabrication of custom 3D-printed soft robotic manipulators for the investigation of delicate deep-sea organisms

© 2018 Vogt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Soft robotics is an emerging technology that has shown considerable promise in deep-sea marine biological applications. It is particularly useful in facilitating delicate interactions with fragile marine organisms. This study describes the shipboard design, 3D printing...

Global polarization of Λ hyperons in Au + Au collisions at sNN =200 GeV

© 2018 American Physical Society. Global polarization of Λ hyperons has been measured to be of the order of a few tenths of a percentage in Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV, with no significant difference between Λ and Λ. These new results reveal the collision energy dependence of the global polarization together with the results previously observed at sNN = 7.7-62.4 GeV and indicate noticeable vorticity of the medium created in noncentral heavy-ion...

Collagen Fingerprinting and the Earliest Marine Mammal Hunting in North America

© 2018 The Author(s). The submersion of Late Pleistocene shorelines and poor organic preservation at many early archaeological sites obscure the earliest effects of humans on coastal resources in the Americas. We used collagen fingerprinting to identify bone fragments from middens at four California Channel Island sites that are among the oldest coastal sites in the Americas (~12,500-8,500 cal BP). We document Paleocoastal human predation of at least three marine mammal families/species, including northern elephant...

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