428 Works

First Measurements of the Double-Polarization Observables F, P, and H in ω Photoproduction off Transversely Polarized Protons in the N∗ Resonance Region

© 2019 American Physical Society. First measurements of double-polarization observables in ω photoproduction off the proton are presented using transverse target polarization and data from the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) FROST experiment at Jefferson Lab. The beam-target asymmetry F has been measured using circularly polarized, tagged photons in the energy range 1200-2700 MeV, and the beam-target asymmetries H and P have been measured using linearly polarized, tagged photons in the energy range 1200-2000 MeV....

Individual differences and psychosis-risk screening: Practical suggestions to improve the scope and quality of early identification

Copyright © 2019 Schiffman, Ellman and Mittal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Approaches...

Scene parsing via dense recurrent neural networks with attentional selection

© 2019 IEEE. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have shown the ability to improve scene parsing through capturing long-range dependencies among image units. In this paper, we propose dense RNNs for scene labeling by exploring various long-range semantic dependencies among image units. Different from existing RNN based approaches, our dense RNNs are able to capture richer contextual dependencies for each image unit by enabling immediate connections between each pair of image units, which significantly enhances their...

A self-selective correlation ship tracking method for smart ocean systems

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. In recent years, with the development of the marine industry, the ship navigation environment has become more complicated. Some artificial intelligence technologies, such as computer vision, can recognize, track and count sailing ships to ensure maritime security and facilitate management for Smart Ocean systems. Aiming at the scaling problem and boundary effect problem of traditional correlation filtering methods, we propose a self-selective correlation filtering method based...

The UWHAM and SWHAM Software Package

© 2019, The Author(s). We introduce the UWHAM (binless weighted histogram analysis method) and SWHAM (stochastic UWHAM) software package that can be used to estimate the density of states and free energy differences based on the data generated by multi-state simulations. The programs used to solve the UWHAM equations are written in the C++ language and operated via the command line interface. In this paper, first we review the theoretical bases of UWHAM, its stochastic...

Thymine DNA glycosylase as a novel target for melanoma

© 2019, The Author(s). Melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm with increasing incidence that is classified by the NCI as a recalcitrant cancer, i.e., a cancer with poor prognosis, lacking progress in diagnosis and treatment. In addition to conventional therapy, melanoma treatment is currently based on targeting the BRAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and immune checkpoints. As drug resistance remains a major obstacle to treatment success, advanced therapeutic approaches based on novel targets are still urgently needed. We...

Ubiquitous quasi-Fuchsian surfaces in cusped hyperbolic 3-manifolds

This paper proves that every finite volume hyperbolic 3-manifold M contains a ubiquitous collection of closed, immersed, quasi-Fuchsian surfaces. These surfaces are ubiquitous in the sense that their preimages in the universal cover separate any pair of disjoint, non-asymptotic geodesic planes. The proof relies in a crucial way on the corresponding theorem of Kahn and Markovic for closed 3-manifolds. As a corollary of this result and a companion statement about surfaces with cusps, we recover...

Clinical and microbiologic investigation of an expedited peri-implantitis dog model: An animal study

© 2019 The Author(s). Background: Animal studies are pivotal in allowing experimentation to identify efficacious treatment protocols for resolution of peri-implantitis. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize an expedited dog peri-implantitis model clinically, radiographically, and microbiologically. Methods: Eight hound dogs underwent extractions (week 0) and implant (3.3 × 8.5 mm) placement with simultaneous surgical defect creation and ligature placement for induction of peri-implantitis (week 10). Ligatures were replaced at 6 weeks (week 16)...

Comparison of dietary micronutrient intakes by body weight status among mexican-american and non-hispanic black women aged 19–39 years: An analysis of NHANES 2003–2014

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The objective of the current study was to examine micronutrient intake from foods in women of childbearing age and to better understand potential nutritional problems varied by body weight status in minority women. A sample of women aged 19–39 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003–2014 was analyzed. Dietary intakes of 13 micronutrients were estimated using the National Cancer Institute method. Mexican-American...

Reliable Confidence Intervals for RelTime Estimates of Evolutionary Divergence Times

© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. Confidence intervals (CIs) depict the statistical uncertainty surrounding evolutionary divergence time estimates. They capture variance contributed by the finite number of sequences and sites used in the alignment, deviations of evolutionary rates from a strict molecular clock in a phylogeny, and uncertainty associated with clock calibrations. Reliable tests of biological hypotheses demand reliable CIs. However, current...

Mobile health-based physical activity intervention for individuals with spinal cord injury in the community: A pilot study

© 2019 Hiremath et al. Low levels of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behavior in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been associated with secondary conditions such as pain, fatigue, weight gain, and deconditioning. One strategy for promoting regular PA is to provide people with an accurate estimate of everyday PA level. The objective of this research was to use a mobile health-based PA measurement system to track PA levels of...

Bottom-up, integrated -omics analysis identifies broadly dosage-sensitive genes in breast cancer samples from TCGA

© 2019 Kechavarzi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The massive genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), including proteomics data from Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), provides a unique opportunity to study cancer systematically. While most observations are made from a single...

Constraining the sea quark distributions through w± cross section ratio measurements at STAR

© Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Over the past several years, parton distribution functions (PDFs) have become more precise. However there are still kinematic regions where more data are needed to help constrain global PDF extractions, such as the ratio of the sea quark distributions d¯/ū near the valence region. Furthermore, current measurements appear to suggest different high-x behaviors of this...

Disentangling Leucocytozoon parasite diversity in the neotropics: Descriptions of two new species and shortcomings of molecular diagnostics for leucocytozoids

© 2019 Avian communities from South America harbor an extraordinary diversity of Leucocytozoon species (Haemosporida, Leucocytozoidae). Here, of 890 birds sampled, 10 (1.2%) were infected with Leucocytozoon parasites. Among them, two new species were discovered and described. Leucocytozoon grallariae sp. nov. and Leucocytozoon neotropicalis sp. nov. were found in non-migratory highland passeriforms belonging to the Grallaridae and Cotingidae, respectively. They both possess gametocytes in fusiform host cells. However, due to combining microscopic examination and molecular...

School-based preventive dental program in rural communities of the republic of Armenia

© 2019 Gasoyan, Safaryan, Sahakyan, Gasoyan, Aaronson and Bagramian. Objectives: This paper describes a school-based preventive dental program implemented in 14 rural schools within nine villages of Armenia. As part of the program, school-based toothbrushing stations (called Brushadromes) were installed in the participating schools. The intervention included school-based supervised toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste and oral hygiene education. Methods: The study evaluates the prevalence and levels of dental caries among rural schoolchildren in 2013 (beforethe implementationof...

Integrating environmental and neighborhood factors in MaxEnt modeling to predict species distributions: A case study of Aedes albopictus in southeastern Pennsylvania

© 2019 Wiese et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Aedes albopictus is a viable vector for several infectious diseases such as Zika, West Nile, Dengue viruses and others. Originating from Asia, this invasive species is rapidly expanding into North American temperate areas and urbanized places...

Removal of HIV DNA by CRISPR from Patient Blood Engrafts in Humanized Mice

© 2018 We used NOD/SCID mice, also known as NRG, to assess the ability of lentivirus-mediated intravenous delivery of CRISPR in editing the HIV-1 genome from the circulating PBMC engrafts, some of which homed within several animal solid tissues. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of a multiplex of guide RNAs accompanied by Cas9 endonuclease led to the excision of the targeted region of the viral genome positioned within the HIV-1 LTR from the in-vitro-infected human peripheral blood mononuclear...

Contact guidance is cell cycle-dependent

© 2018 Author(s). Cancer cell migration is essential for metastasis, during which cancer cells move through the tumor and reach the blood vessels. In vivo, cancer cells are exposed to contact guidance and chemotactic cues. Depending on the strength of such cues, cells will migrate in a random or directed manner. While similar cues may also stimulate cell proliferation, it is not clear whether cell cycle progression affects migration of cancer cells and whether this...

Using the mutation-selection framework to characterize selection on protein sequences

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. When mutational pressure is weak, the generative process of protein evolution involves explicit probabilities of mutations of different types coupled to their conditional probabilities of fixation dependent on selection. Establishing this mechanistic modeling framework for the detection of selection has been a goal in the field of molecular evolution. Building on a mathematical framework proposed more than a decade ago, numerous methods have been introduced in...

PRIF: A Privacy-Preserving Interest-Based Forwarding Scheme for Social Internet of Vehicles

© 2014 IEEE. Recent advances in socially aware networks (SANs) have allowed its use in many domains, out of which the Social Internet of Vehicles (SIOV) is of prime importance. SANs can provide a promising routing and forwarding paradigm for SIOV by using interest-based communication. Though able to improve the forwarding performance, existing interest-based schemes fail to consider the important issue of protecting users' interest information. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving interest-based forwarding...

Reinforcement learning–based QoS/QoE-aware service function chaining in software-driven 5G slices

© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. With the ever-growing diversity of devices and applications that will be connected to 5G networks, flexible and agile service orchestration with acknowledged quality of experience (QoE) that satisfies the end user's functional and quality-of-service (QoS) requirements is necessary. Software-defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV) are considered key enabling technologies for 5G core networks. In this regard, this paper proposes a reinforcement learning–based QoS/QoE-aware service function chaining...

Beam Energy Dependence of Jet-Quenching Effects in Au+Au Collisions at sNN =7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV

© 2018 American Physical Society. We report measurements of the nuclear modification factor RCP for charged hadrons as well as identified π+(-), K+(-), and p(p) for Au+Au collision energies of sNN=7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV. We observe a clear high-pT net suppression in central collisions at 62.4 GeV for charged hadrons which evolves smoothly to a large net enhancement at lower energies. This trend is driven by the evolution of the...

The theoretical and methodological opportunities afforded by guided play with young children

© 2018 Yu, Shafto, Bonawitz, Yang, Golinkoff, Corriveau, Hirsh-Pasek and Xu. For infants and young children, learning takes place all the time and everywhere. How children learn best both in and out of school has been a long-standing topic of debate in education, cognitive development, and cognitive science. Recently, guided play has been proposed as an integrative approach for thinking about learning as a child-led, adult-assisted playful activity. The interactive and dynamic nature of guided...

Semi-inclusive π0 target and beam-target asymmetries from 6 GeV electron scattering with CLAS

© 2018 The Authors We present precision measurements of the target and beam-target spin asymmetries from neutral pion electroproduction in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. We scattered 6-GeV, longitudinally polarized electrons off longitudinally polarized protons in a cryogenic 14NH3 target, and extracted double and single target spin asymmetries for ep→e′π0X in multidimensional bins in four-momentum transfer (1.0

Learning atoms for materials discovery

© 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All Rights Reserved. Exciting advances have been made in artificial intelligence (AI) during recent decades. Among them, applications of machine learning (ML) and deep learning techniques brought human-competitive performances in various tasks of fields, including image recognition, speech recognition, and natural language understanding. Even in Go, the ancient game of profound complexity, the AI player has already beat human world champions convincingly with and without learning from the human....

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