428 Works

An adaptive network coding scheme for multipath transmission in cellular-based vehicular networks

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. With the emergence of vehicular Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications, it is a significant challenge for vehicular IoT systems to obtain higher throughput in vehicle-to-cloud multipath transmission. Network Coding (NC) has been recognized as a promising paradigm for improving vehicular wireless network throughput by reducing packet loss in transmission. However, existing researches on NC do not consider the influence of the rapid quality change of wireless links on...

Helicity-dependent photocurrents in the chiral Weyl semimetal RhSi

Copyright © 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC). Weyl semimetals are crystals in which electron bands cross at isolated points in momentum space. Associated with each crossing point (or Weyl node) is a topological invariant known as the Berry monopole charge. The circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE), whereby circular...

Comparison of methods for handling covariate missingness in propensity score estimation with a binary exposure

BACKGROUND: Causal effect estimation with observational data is subject to bias due to confounding, which is often controlled for using propensity scores. One unresolved issue in propensity score estimation is how to handle missing values in covariates. METHOD: Several approaches have been proposed for handling covariate missingness, including multiple imputation (MI), multiple imputation with missingness pattern (MIMP), and treatment mean imputation. However, there are other potentially useful approaches that have not been evaluated, including single...

Distinctive germline expression of class i human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and DRB1 heterozygosis predict the outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. Background Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) able to rescue quiescent tumor infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) restoring their ability to kill target cells expressing specific tumor antigen-derived epitope peptides bound to homologue human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. Nivolumab is currently an active but expensive therapeutic agent for...

Individual breastfeeding support with contingent incentives for low-income mothers in the USA: The 'BOOST (Breastfeeding Onset & Onward with Support Tools)' randomised controlled trial protocol

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. Introduction National breastfeeding rates have improved in recent years, however, disparities exist by socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. Suboptimal breastfeeding overburdens the society by increasing healthcare costs. Existing breastfeeding supports including education and peer support have not been sufficient in sustaining breastfeeding rates especially among low-income women. The preliminary outcomes of contingent incentives for breastfeeding...

Complete flavor decomposition of the spin and momentum fraction of the proton using lattice QCD simulations at physical pion mass

© 2020 authors. Published by the American Physical Society. Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. Funded by SCOAP 3 We evaluate the gluon and quark contributions to the spin of the proton using an ensemble of gauge configurations generated at physical pion mass....

Structural Competency: Curriculum for Medical Students, Residents, and Interprofessional Teams on the Structural Factors That Produce Health Disparities

Copyright © 2020 Neff et al. Introduction: Research on disparities in health and health care has demonstrated that social, economic, and political factors are key drivers of poor health outcomes. Yet the role of such structural forces on health and health care has been incorporated unevenly into medical training. The framework of structural competency offers a paradigm for training health professionals to recognize and respond to the impact of upstream, structural factors on patient health...

Relationships between vocal pitch perception and production: a developmental perspective

© 2020, The Author(s). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between vocal pitch discrimination abilities and vocal responses to auditory pitch-shifts. Twenty children (6.6–11.7 years) and twenty adults (18–28 years) completed a listening task to determine auditory discrimination abilities to vocal fundamental frequency (fo) as well as two vocalization tasks in which their perceived fo was modulated in real-time. These pitch-shifts were either unexpected, providing information on auditory feedback control, or...

Perspectives of adolescents with severe obesity on social Media in Preparation for weight-loss surgery: A qualitative study

© 2020 The Author(s). Background: Currently the most effective treatment for severe obesity in adolescents is weight-loss surgery coupled with lifestyle behavior change. In preparation for weight-loss surgery, adolescents are required to make changes to eating and activity habits (lifestyle changes) to promote long term success. Social media support groups, which are popular among adolescents, have the potential to augment preoperative lifestyle changes. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively assess the perceived role...

An Ultrasonically Powered Implantable Microprobe for Electrolytic Ablation

© 2020, The Author(s). Electrolytic ablation (EA) is a promising nonthermal tumor ablation technique that destroys malignant cells through induction of a locoregional pH change. EA is typically performed by inserting needle electrodes inside the tumor followed by application of direct current (DC), thus inducing electrolysis and creating localized pH changes around the electrodes. In this paper, we report an ultrasonically powered implantable EA microprobe that may increase the clinical relevance of EA by allowing...

Adaptive Markov state model estimation using short reseeding trajectories

© 2020 Author(s). In the last decade, advances in molecular dynamics (MD) and Markov State Model (MSM) methodologies have made possible accurate and efficient estimation of kinetic rates and reactive pathways for complex biomolecular dynamics occurring on slow time scales. A promising approach to enhanced sampling of MSMs is to use "adaptive" methods, in which new MD trajectories are "seeded" preferentially from previously identified states. Here, we investigate the performance of various MSM estimators applied...

Vital Voices: HIV Prevention and Care Interventions Developed for Disproportionately Affected Communities by Historically Underrepresented, Early-Career Scientists

© 2020, W. Montague Cobb-NMA Health Institute. Abstract: Background: HIV prevention interventions which support engagement in care and increased awareness of biomedical options, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), are highly desired for disproportionately affected Black/African American, Hispanic/Latinx and gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) populations in the United States (US). However, in almost 40 years of HIV research, few interventions have been developed directly by and for these priority populations in...

Beauty and the Mask

MRI-derived bone porosity index correlates to bone composition and mechanical stiffness

© 2019 The Author(s) The MRI-derived porosity index (PI) is a non-invasively obtained biomarker based on an ultrashort echo time sequence that images both bound and pore water protons in bone, corresponding to water bound to organic collagenous matrix and freely moving water, respectively. This measure is known to strongly correlate with the actual volumetric cortical bone porosity. However, it is unknown whether PI may also be able to directly quantify bone organic composition and/or...

Rejecting bias: The case against race adjustment for OPO performance in communities of color

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© 2020 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons In December of 2019, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) put out a notice of proposed rule-making for 42 CFR Part 486, specifically the section that covers the organ procurement organization (OPO) Conditions for Coverage. Most crucially, the proposed rule included two new OPO performance metrics using objective, standardized data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)....

Adversarial samples on android malware detection systems for IoT systems

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Many IoT (Internet of Things) systems run Android systems or Android-like systems. With the continuous development of machine learning algorithms, the learning-based Android malware detection system for IoT devices has gradually increased. However, these learning-based detection models are often vulnerable to adversarial samples. An automated testing framework is needed to help these learning-based malware detection systems for IoT devices perform security analysis. The current methods of...

Microrna mediate visfatin and resistin induction of oxidative stress in human osteoarthritic synovial fibroblasts via nf-κb pathway

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Synovial membrane inflammation actively participate to structural damage during osteoarthritis (OA). Adipokines, miRNA, and oxidative stress contribute to synovitis and cartilage destruction in OA. We investigated the relationship between visfatin, resistin and miRNA in oxidative stress regulation, in human OA synovial fibroblasts. Cultured cells were treated with visfatin and resistin. After 24 h, we evaluated various pro-inflammatory cytokines, metalloproteinases (MMPs), type II collagen (Col2a1), miR-34a, miR-146a,...

The developmental origins of sex-biased expression in cardiac development

© 2019 The Author(s). Background: Expression patterns between males and females vary in every adult tissue, even in organs with no conspicuous dimorphisms such as the heart. While studies of male and female differences have traditionally focused on the influence of sex hormones, these do not account for all the differences at the molecular and epigenetic levels. We previously reported that a substantial number of genes were differentially expressed in male and female mouse embryonic...

Biological relevance of computationally predicted pathogenicity of noncoding variants

© 2019, The Author(s). Computational prediction of the phenotypic propensities of noncoding single nucleotide variants typically combines annotation of genomic, functional and evolutionary attributes into a single score. Here, we evaluate if the claimed excellent accuracies of these predictions translate into high rates of success in addressing questions important in biological research, such as fine mapping causal variants, distinguishing pathogenic allele(s) at a given position, and prioritizing variants for genetic risk assessment. A significant disconnect...

Title: Efficacy of a food parenting intervention for mothers with low income to reduce preschooler's solid fat and added sugar intakes: A randomized controlled trial

© 2019 The Author(s). Background: Few interventions have shown efficacy to influence key energy balance behaviors during the preschool years. Objective: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of Food, Fun, and Families (FFF), a 12 week authoritative food parenting intervention for mothers with low-income levels, to reduce preschool-aged children's intake of calories from solid fat and added sugar (SoFAS). Methods: Mothers were randomly assigned to receive FFF (n = 59)...

Structure-Mechanical Property Relations of Skin-Core Regions of Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) Single Fiber

© 2019, The Author(s). This study aims to elucidate the relationship between the mechanical properties and microstructures of poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) single fibers at the micro/nano scale. The skin-core structure of Kevlar® 29 fiber was revealed through a focused electron beam experiment inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber. Cross sectional SEM images of the broken fiber showed that the thickness of the skin ranged from 300 to 800 nm and that the core region...

BAP1 status determines the sensitivity of malignant mesothelioma cells to gemcitabine treatment

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is a cancer with poor prognosis and resistance to standard treatments. Recent reports have highlighted the role of the BRCA1 associated protein 1 gene (BAP1) in the development of MMe. In this study, the chemosensitivity of human mesothelioma cell lines carrying BAP1 wild-type (WT), mutant and silenced was analysed. The BAP1 mutant cells were significantly less sensitive than BAP1 WT cell lines to...

Associations between snacking and weight status among adolescents 12–19 years in the United States

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Snacking is a significant contributor to energy intake among adolescents, but its association with weight status is unclear. To elucidate this association, data from 6545 adolescents (12–19 years) in the 2005–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. The mean number of daily snack occasions, mean snack size, and mean snack energy density were examined by weight classification (body mass index (BMI)-for-age percentiles: Normal...

Association of Drug Burden Index with grip strength, timed up and go and Barthel index activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: An observational cross-sectional study

© 2019 The Author(s). Background: Drug Burden Index (DBI), a measure of exposure to medications with anticholinergic and sedative activity, has been associated with poorer physical function in older adults in the general population. While extensive study has been conducted on associations between DBI and physical function in older adults in the general population, little is known about associations in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). This is the first study which aims to examine...

Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to investigate the effect of enteropathogen infections on linear growth in children in low-resource settings: longitudinal analysis of results from the MAL-ED cohort study

© 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license Background: Enteropathogen infections in early childhood not only cause diarrhoea but contribute to poor growth. We used molecular diagnostics to assess whether particular enteropathogens were associated with linear growth across seven low-resource settings. Methods: We used quantitative PCR to detect 29 enteropathogens in diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal stools collected from children in the first 2 years...

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