146,622 Works

Linking cellular metabolism and Innate Defence Regulator peptide function

Nicole Afacan
Appropriate cellular metabolism is essential to immune cells to survival and their ability to mount effective and appropriate responses to the pathogen and host derived insults they encounter. Malnutrition, caused by nutrient deficiency or excess, can result in significant dysregulation of immune cell activity. Immune cells undergo metabolic reprogramming in response to pathogen and host-derived signals found in their environment. These changes modulate the type of response they will mount. Innate defence regulatory (IDR) peptides,...

The role of monosodium glutamate in headache

Melissa O'Brien
Consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) can induce headache in young healthy individuals and migraine-like headache in migraineurs. Blood plasma levels of glutamate are also elevated in migraineurs, but it is unknown how elevated levels of glutamate contribute to headache. The current study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that monosodium glutamate induces headache through activation of peripheral glutamate receptors. To test the hypothesis, we combined in vivo electrophysiology, laser Doppler recordings of dural vasculature, and...

Three essays on female and child outcomes in India

Shampa Bhattacharjee
Poor child health outcomes and high fertility rates are viewed as major obstacles to development in most developing countries. Chapters 2 and 3 of my thesis investigate the determinants of these outcomes in the Indian context. The second chapter looks at the impact of political cycles on infant mortality in India. This study shows that children born 0-12 months before scheduled state assembly elections have 13.4% lower mortality risks as compared to children not born...

Voluntary resettlement for improved livelihoods? : examining food security, nutrition, and informed consent amongst land reform participants in southern Malawi

Kelly Susan Sharp
Land scarcity and food insecurity are critical concerns for billions of individuals worldwide; voluntary resettlement, as a type of land reform, offers governments and aid agencies a controversial approach to address these concerns. This thesis examines the case of a US$38-million World Bank-funded voluntary resettlement scheme in southern Malawi known as the Community Based Rural Land Development Project, through which 15,000 low-income farming households moved internally from densely populated areas to underutilized plantations between 2004...

Teaching the intangible : how early childhood teacher education instructors \"teach\" relational development

Alexandera McCannell
This thesis set out with the research question, “How are relationships framed, valued, taught and assessed by early childhood educator program instructors in British Columbia?” I conducted six group interviews and five individual interviews with instructors and directors, respectively, at public and private institutions around British Columbia. Using narrative analysis, I constructed a composite instructor character and a composite student instructor character and, using Ollerenshaw and Creswell’s (2002) problem-solution strategy, analyzed the characters during a...

A juxtaposition of worldviews : how emerging regenerative frameworks can be enriched by Plains Cree ways of knowing

Amanda Lwanga-Thomson
Proponents of regenerative design and development have attempted to adopt Indigenous philosophies and sacred teachings into their research and publications. Though well intentioned, merely using quotations from Indigenous people does not constitute a culturally sensitive approach to learning from Indigenous ways of knowing. Even though some founding theories draw on Indigenous ways of knowing, existing regenerative frameworks do not explicitly take a holistic approach to exploring the worldviews, values, processes and practices, which are the...

Characterizations of boreal anthropogenic disturbance regimes from multi-scalar Earth observations

Paul Drew Pickell
Anthropogenic disturbance regimes are anticipated to overwhelm Earth’s ecosystems during the Anthropocene. Boreal forests are particularly at risk of significant transition due to human appropriation of renewable and non-renewable resources. Forestry and energy development in the boreal forest have three primary ecological consequences: suppression of historical disturbance regimes such as fire; emergence of novel ecosystems; and the eradication of ecological memory, which maintains ecological integrity. The objective of this dissertation is to improve our understanding...

Identification of novel androgen receptor inhibitors for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer

Ravi Shashi Nayana Munuganti
Interest in developing androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors with novel mechanism of action for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) is on the rise since the commercial anti-androgens (including recently approved drug, Enzalutamide) face clinical limitations. Current therapies fail over a period of time because they all target mutation-prone androgen binding pocket on AR to which the receptor has already developed effective resistance mechanisms. Hence, there is a pressing need for novel therapeutics that inhibit the...

The role of SHIP2 in suppressing inflammatory signaling induced by LPS in immortalized murine macrophage cell line

Tianren Wang
Inflammation is an important step in the body’s defense against pathogen infection. However, it must be tightly regulated and appropriately terminated to prevent pathological consequences. Interleukin-10 (IL10) is one of the body’s most important anti-inflammatory cytokine that can inhibit many molecular events necessary for promoting inflammation including production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα). Our laboratory has recently shown that SH2-domain containing Inositol 5ʹ phosphatase (SHIP1) is involved in IL10 signaling...

Heat shock protein 27 inhibits the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway by facilitating MST1 proteasomal degradation

Sepideh Vahid
Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a molecular chaperone highly and ubiquitously expressed in aggressive cancers where it controls a variety of pro-tumorigenic signaling pathways. Using gene expression profiling in prostate cancer cells with loss of Hsp27 function, we identified for the first time that Hsp27 regulates target genes in signaling pathways dependent on YAP and TAZ. Suppression of these transcriptional co-activators occurs via their phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway....

For better or worse? : decriminalisation, work conditions, and indoor sex work in Auckland, New Zealand/Aotearoa

Catherine Zangger
Internationally, sex workers and other people who participate in the sex industry remain subjected to social, economic, and political inequalities on a daily basis. While decriminalisation has been championed by sex workers and advocates in Canada and elsewhere, New Zealand remains the only country to have implemented this model, which is arguably the most conducive to improving the work conditions for sex workers. More than a decade post-decriminalisation, we have scant knowledge on what criteria...

Development of the human innate immune system throughout gestation

Ashish Arunkumar Sharma
Almost four million neonates die of infectious and prematurity-related causes across the world annually. The innate immune system provides evolutionarily ancient first-line protection against most microbial pathogens. In contrast, the adaptive immune system is capable of developing an immunological memory that provides enhanced protection in vertebrates. A mechanistic understanding of the maturation of the human preterm neonatal immune system is lacking and this may limit our ability to develop more age-appropriate immunological therapies. In Chapter...

High throughput imaging for anthelmintic discovery and Caenorhabditis elegans genetic tools for target elucidation

Mark Mathew
Nearly three billion humans worldwide have helminth infections, which accounts for a global disease burden of 5.2 million disability-adjusted life years. Parasitic nematodes also have a great affect on agriculture, annually destroying 12.3% of global food crops and accounting for an annual loss of approximately $10 billion (USD) worldwide in the sheep and cattle industry. There is widespread resistance to all classes of anthelmintic drugs. The last drug to enter human clinical trials was 35...

A comparison of criticism received face-to-face or via text message among young adults : does mode of communication matter?

Drew DeClerck
The popularity of text messaging has increased dramatically in the last decade, such that most young adults use this form of communication daily. The extent to which negative exchanges over text messaging can impact wellbeing in the same way as face-to-face communication remains unclear. In the computer-mediated communication literature, cues-filtered-out theories predict that the impact of text messaging would be weaker, given its lack of tone and non-verbal cues. However, proponents of the social information...

The corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloy B206 in seawater

Harshmeet Singh
Aluminium alloy B206 is one of the strongest and toughest alloys in the cast aluminium family. Although it is light and has excellent low cycle fatigue strength, AA B206 has been known to perform adversely due to its poor corrosion resistance. Thus corrosion has been identified as one of the major issues that jeopardizes the long-term use and performance of B206. The corrosion behaviour of B206 in seawater is studied through immersion testing and electrochemical...

An ecology of technology : infants, toddlers, and mobile screen devices

Michaela Birgitta Wooldridge
Within a bio-ecological systems framework, this study explored the presence and use of mobile screen devices (MSDs) within family homes of infants born into a Digital Age. A mixed methods approach was used to gather and analyze data from an online questionnaire completed by 292 Canadian parents with a child birth to three years old, as well as from home-based observations and interviews with 28 families. There were three research questions: (1) How do the...

Silent supporters : understanding clients' lived experiences of animal-assisted therapy in counselling

Jessica Owen
The human-animal bond has long been a topic of interest for both researchers and clinicians. There are many studies that support the benefits of animals with regards to humans’ psychological and physical wellbeing, such as improved mental and physical health in pet owners and the use of animals in paramedical practices (e.g., Rector, 2005; Souter & Miller). However, although therapists are engaging animals in their practice all over the world, there is no empirical research...

Does salbutamol improve sprinting performance following endurance cycling?

Sean Sinden
Salbutamol, an inhaled asthma medication, may have a number of extra-pulmonary effects throughout the body that may result in an ergogenic benefit during exercise. Purpose: To investigate the ergogenic effects of high-dose inhaled salbutamol on sprint performance following a prolonged, individualized, steady-state exercise bout; secondarily, to identify the systemic effects of salbutamol during steady-state exercise that might explain such an ergogenic finding. Methods: Using a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea test, ten male and ten female cyclists...

Computational analysis of ribonucleic acid basepairs in RNA structure and RNA-RNA interactions

Daniel Lai
Ribonucleic acids (RNA), are an essential part of cellular function, transcribed from DNA and translated into protein. Rather than a passive informational medium, RNA can also be highly functional and regulatory. Certain RNAs fold into specific structures giving it enzymatic properties, while others bind to specific targets to guide regulatory processes. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, a large number of novel non-coding RNAs have been discovered through whole-transcriptome sequencing. Many efforts have been made...

Improved characterization and movement of the platinum band in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

David Luke Damron
Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are devices that produce zero emission electricity, offering one pathway towards a sustainable energy future. They are in the early stages of commercialization in automotive, backup power and mobile power applications, with cost and lifetime of the cells still representing major barriers. Platinum (Pt) degradation in a PEM fuel cell leads to reduced performance and lifetime, while raw material costs represent a large portion of the overall cost. One...

Timber moment connections using glued-in steel rods

Jiyoon Oh
The experimental study completed in this thesis focused on timber-steel hybrid moment connections using d=12.7mm diameter mild steel threaded rods glued into Douglas-Fir glulam with polyurethane based adhesive. Two phases of experiments were conducted: the first to determine the minimum design parameter values that result in a ductile tensile failure of the glued-in steel rod, instead of a brittle timber or pull-out failure; and the second, to determine a relationship between the different design parameters...

Flux optimization in passive membrane systems with air sparging and relaxation

Traditional membrane filtration plants for drinking water require uninterrupted electricity for pumps and fouling control, thus making it unsuitable for small/rural communities and developing countries. Gravity driven passive membrane filtration systems can be a possible solution to this problem. Previous studies demonstrated that frequent air sparging is beneficial to maintaining a high permeate flux in passive membrane systems. Previous studies also reported that forward flushing after relaxation is also beneficial to maintaining a high permeate...

The politics of transnational welfare citizenship : kin, state, and personhood among older Sakhalin koreans

Sungsook Lim
This dissertation examines the return migration and the reconfiguration of personhood among older Sakhalin Koreans. Based on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork conducted from 2010 to 2011on Sakhalin Island, Russia and in South Korea, I explore how transnational return mobility shapes discourses, practices, and imaginaries of kinship and citizenship among older Sakhalin Koreans. This study situates the return program as an imperial formation, and a contemporary ethno-nation-building project of Japan and South Korea. I contend that this...

Characterization of myelin water imaging using a gradient and spin echo sequence in human brain and spinal cord

Emil Ljungberg
Myelin water imaging is a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging technique that can be used as an in vivo biomarker for myelin in the central nervous system. In 2007, a paradigm shift took place when the standard sequence for myelin water imaging changed from a multi-echo spin echo sequence to a gradient and spin echo (GRASE) sequence. The GRASE sequence has so far only been applied to brain imaging, and reproducibility between different scan vendors has...

Returning to our medicines : decolonizing and indigenizing mental health services to better serve Indigenous communities in urban spaces

Karlee Dawn Fellner
While mental health services continue to make efforts toward greater cultural sensitivity, research, education, and practice in these fields remain grounded primarily in Western Eurosettler principles that have been applied in colonization. Addressing the dearth of culturally relevant and appropriate research in Indigenous mental health, the current project applied isîhcikêwin – the author’s Indigenist nehiyaw-otipemisiwak (Cree/Métis) research paradigm to address the question: How can mental health services (be shaped so as to) better serve Indigenous...

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