682 Works

Redistribution of Income: Policy Directions

James B. Davies
Poverty and rising income inequality in Canada have brought demands for improved government action on redistribution. Unfortunately, such pleas risk being overshadowed by a looming fiscal crunch as the baby boomers retire. An expanding population of seniors will add at least one percent annually to both growing health and OAS/GIS costs so that, absent meaningful change, other spending will have to be slashed by an average of 20.2 percent by 2032 if total spending and...

Income Inequality, Redistribution and Economic Growth

Bev Dahlby & Ergete Ferede
Inequality is on the rise in Canada and this state of affairs has provoked outrage and demands for redistribution at a time when governments at every level are searching for reliable long-term growth. This paper examines the links between income inequality and economic growth and whether there is a trade-off between redistributive policies, and economic growth, or whether income redistribution can enable faster growth. The authors survey the existing literature on the impact of inequality...

Wireless Competition in Canada: An Assessment

Jeffrey Church & Andrew Wilkins
If there’s one thing Canadians agree on, it’s that Canada’s wireless industry can and should be more competitive. The federal government is on side with the policy objective of having four carriers in every region and has responded with policies that provide commercial advantages to entrants. But, the rub is that there has not been a study that actually assesses the state of competition in wireless services in Canada, until now. Those in favour of...

Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economist’s Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary

Richard Arnott
Affordable housing and a manageable commute are central to the well-being of Calgarians. Yet among larger Canadian metropolitan areas today, Calgary already has close to the most expensive housing, and the average journey-to-work time, close to 30 minutes, is as high today as it was in Los Angeles in 2000, when Los Angeles had a population 10 times larger. Decisions around how Calgary grows are based on the policies within The City’s Municipal Development Plan...

An Exploration into the Municipal Capacity to Finance Capital Infrastructure

Almos T. Tassony & Brian W. Conger
Municipal governments own and maintain two-thirds of Canada’s stock of public infrastructure. This burden is met by municipalities within the parameters afforded to them by their respective provinces. As a result, municipalities throughout the country rely on three primary revenue streams: issuing debt, financing from dedicated revenue and transfers from higher levels of government. At the same time, strict rules on borrowing, sometimes self-imposed, have left municipalities with considerable unrealized borrowing capacity. Importantly, a shift...

The Value Proposition of Prevention: The Impacts of Pure North S’Energy Foundation’s Preventive Care Program on Acute Care Utilization in Alberta

J.C. Herbert Emery
This analysis of Pure North S’Energy Foundation’s preventive health services shows that the acute health care cost savings of being pro-active, rather than reactive, and averting chronic disease, are significant, immediate and worth pursuing further. Chronic disease, such as cardiovascular maladies, diabetes, cancer and other long-term illnesses, represents the leading cause of disability and death in Canada. An estimated 25 per cent of expenditures in the public health system go towards treating these frequently avoidable...

Make the Alberta Carbon Levy Revenue Neutral

Kenneth J. McKenzie
The new carbon levy of $30 per tonne, announced in November 2015 as part of the report issued by the Alberta government’s Climate Leadership Panel, is a positive move in the direction of pricing carbon emissions. The levy is expected to generate $3 billion in net revenue by 2018, and possibly as much as $5 billion by 2030. While there is some discussion in the report of what should be done with the revenues generated...

Business Cases for Major Public Infrastructure Projects in Canada

Mario Iacobacci
When governments announce that they are going to spend vast sums of taxpayers’ money on a new public infrastructure project, you can be certain they will praise all the terrific new benefits that the project will bring to citizens, making everyone’s life easier, safer, greener and better. But this does not tell us whether we are better off as a society, after accounting for the cost of these projects borne by taxpayers today and well...

Social Policy Trends: Emergency Shelter Stays, Calgary, 2008-2017

& Ronald D. Kneebone
EMERGENCY SHELTER STAYS, CALGARY, 2008-2017 Number of stays in emergency homeless shelters provided for single adults: Total, and the number of stays as a percentage of Calgary’s adult population In 2008, Calgary embarked on a 10-year plan to address homelessness. The chart provides measures of the progress made in that regard. The jagged black line records the nightly number of stays in those of Calgary’s emergency shelters allocated for single adults from January 1, 2008...

Social Policy Trends – Stock of Apartment Rental Units in Four Major Metropolitan Areas

STOCK OF APARTMENT RENTAL UNITS IN FOUR MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREAS Number of apartment rental units per 1,000 people in each of the four major Canadian cities from 1990 to 2016 People with low incomes rely on municipalities to maintain an adequate number of rental units. Low stocks of rental units are generally associated with higher rental prices, and therefore, lower housing affordability. In today’s issue of Social Policy Trends we take a look at the...

Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: Alberta

Sarah Dobson & G. Kent Fellows
This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for Alberta, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in Alberta. In contrast, a consumption-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for final goods...

The Canadian unemployment rate – with and without Alberta’s Boom

Ronald D. Kneebone
Over the past two decades there has occurred a shift in economic power from central Canada to other parts of the country. Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador have both claimed a noticeably larger share of Canada’s GDP since 1995 but easily the largest shift of economic output has been to Alberta. This adjustment in the Canadian economy is most easily observed in the large migration between provinces of Canadians seeking employment. Data from Statistics Canada’s...

Bending the Medicare Cost Curve in 12 Months or Less: How Preventative Health Care can Yield Significant Near-Term Savings for Acute Care in Alberta

Daniel J. Dutton, J.C. Herbert Emery, Thomas Mullie & Jennifer D. Zwicker
Over the course of more than 30 years, a series of Canadian government commissions and health policy researchers have repeatedly identified the importance of “bending the cost curve” to sustain publicly funded health care, and the potential to do so through upstream investment in health promotion and disease prevention. So far, however, the level of public investment in prevention represents only a slight portion of total public health care expenditure, largely consisting of traditional public...

The Distribution of Income and Taxes/Transfers In Canada: A Cohort Analysis

Daria Crisan, Kenneth J. McKenzie & Jack M. Mintz
Who pays and how much? These are crucial questions for any tax system and, given the complexity of the economy, they are also among the most difficult to answer. This paper undertakes an analysis of the distribution of taxes and transfers in Canada using a static approach based on annual income combined with the novel approach of breaking down taxpayers by age cohort. The paper examines how tax rates net of transfers differ by age...

Mining Taxation in Colombia

Duanjie Chen & Guillermo Perry
This paper first assesses the current Colombian mining tax-and-royalty regime in comparison with other countries from the points of view of efficiency, competitiveness and revenue performance. It then discusses the theoretical convenience of introducing alternative designs for a resource rent tax (RRT) to be applied to new mining projects, together with a reduced common royalty rate for all minerals, and simulates their potential efficiency, competitiveness and revenue-performance effects. In particular, it examines alternative interactions between...

Why Delay the Inevitable: Why the AIIB Matters to Canada’s Future

Eugene Beaulieu & Wendy Dobson
Yesterday was the deadline to join the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) as a founding member. Once again Canada is on the sidelines as Asia and most of the rest of the world moves forward while Canada watches. When Chinese President Xi Jinping announced plans for the AIIB at the APEC summit in Indonesia in 2013 and launched the initiative in Beijing at the China-hosted APEC summit a year later, who would have predicted that...

Estimating Discount Rates

Laurence Booth
Discount rates are essential to applied finance, especially in setting prices for regulated utilities and valuing the liabilities of insurance companies and defined benefit pension plans. This paper reviews the basic building blocks for estimating discount rates. It also examines market risk premiums, as well as what constitutes a benchmark fair or required rate of return, in the aftermath of the financial crisis and the U.S. Federal Reserve’s bond-buying program. Some of the results are...

D-fence Against the Canadian Winter: Making Insufficient Vitamin D Levels a Higher Priority for Public Health

Jennifer D. Zwicker
With most of the country situated above the latitude of the 42nd parallel north, there is a significant portion of the Canadian population that is not getting enough of the sunshine vitamin during the winter. Vitamin D is naturally produced when skin is exposed to sunlight, however during the winter months in Canada the sun is too low in the sky for this to occur. A full quarter of the Canadian population is estimated to...

The School of Public Policy Publications, Vol 8 (2015)

The School Of Public Policy Publications
Potash Taxation: How Canada’s Regime is Neither Efficient nor Competitive from an International Perspective Bending the Medicare Cost Curve in 12 Months or Less: How Preventative Health Care can Yield Significant Near-Term Savings for Acute Care in Alberta What Dependency Issues? Re-examining Assumptions about Canada’s Reliance on the U.S. Export Market The 2014 Global Tax Competitiveness Report: A Proposed Business Tax Reform Agenda The Distribution of Income and Taxes/Transfers In Canada: A Cohort Analysis Shelter...

Will Alberta Lose Its Tax Advantage?

Jack M. Mintz
Alberta historically has prided itself on its provincial tax advantage, and for good reason. With abundant natural resource revenues, the province has been able to leverage its advantage to attract capital and people in order to grow and diversify its economy. Low tax rates have also meant fewer disincentives for people to work and invest in Alberta than they face in other provinces. Alberta’s tax advantage, however, is diminishing as tax regimes in other provinces...

Competition in Canadian Health Care Service Provision: Good, Bad or Indifferent?

Jane E. Ruseski
Most provincial health care systems in Canada combine public, private non-profit, and private for-profit delivery. In Alberta, the Health Care Protection Act , known as Bill 11, allows the public to purchase certain insured surgical services from private providers. This legislation sparked a heated and ongoing debate in Canada about the role of competition in health care service delivery. The key question asked is what can be gained from introducing competition among hospital and physician...

Ontario’s Bold Move to Create Jobs and Growth: Impact of the 2009 Ontario Budget and Other Recent Tax Measures on Investment, Jobs and Incomes

Jack M. Mintz
• The 2009 Ontario Budget measures, together with other recent tax changes, will have a profound impact on Ontario’s competitiveness by lowering the tax burden on new business investment. • Within ten years, Ontario will benefit from: – increased capital investment of $47 billion; – increased annual incomes of up to 8.8%, or $29.4 billion; and – an estimated 591,000 net new jobs. This paper documents the impact of the 2009 Ontario Budget and other...

Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: Saskatchewan

Sarah Dobson & G. Kent Fellows
This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for Saskatchewan, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in Saskatchewan. In contrast, a consumption-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for final goods...

Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: New Brunswick

Sarah Dobson & G. Kent Fellows
This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for New Brunswick, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in New Brunswick. In contrast, a consumptionbased emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for...

Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: Newfoundland and Labrador

Sarah Dobson & G. Kent Fellows
This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in Newfoundland and Labrador. In contrast, a consumption-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    682

Resource Types

  • Text
    682