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Keeneland Conference Plenary Sessions

Richard J. Umbdenstock
Historically individual and community health problems fed off one another, nonetheless the connection eventually became clear and individual health and population health solutions started to emerge and built off one another. Somewhere along the line, population health and patient health seemed to become divided by a brighter line into 2 separate realms, few of us crossing from one to the otherToday we are looking out for the good of our respective communities. As hospitals move...

Use of the County Health Rankings by Local Health Departments in Florida, 2010 - 2011

Nancy L. Winterbauer, Bonita Winterbauer & James B. Tidwell
This paper describes how local health departments (LHDs) in Florida used the County Health Rankings over the first two years of their release (2010 – 2011). We surveyed LHD leadership to describe if, how and to what extent the Rankings were used by Florida’s 67 LHDs to improve the health of their communities and describe changes in use from the 2010 to the 2011 release. Our results indicate substantial use of the Rankings by Florida’s...

Policymakers Identify Priorities for PHSSR

Katherine Froeb Papa
A major goal for the health services research community is to provide evidence policymakers can use to improve the public’s health. However, it can be difficult to know what evidence policymakers want and how they decide what research to fund. In order to understand where policymakers turn for evidence and how they make funding decisions amid fiscal and political constraints, AcademyHealth conducted a 3-part Fireside Chat series in the spring of 2014. This editorial summarizes...

What “Community Building” Activities are Nonprofit Hospitals Reporting as Community Benefit?

Erik Bakken, David Kindig & Jo Ivey Boufford
In 2008, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) revised and standardized the reporting policy for community benefit expenses for non-profit hospitals. These expenses are required for tax-exemption. At that time, the IRS designated some categories of activities as non-eligible as a community benefit, but still mandated their reporting on hospitals’ Form 990- the annual tax filing for non-profit organizations. One such category was community building, which encompasses a broad range of non-medial determinants of health and...

Public health system partnerships and the scope of maternal and child services

Sharla Smith, Glen Mays, Tommy Mac Bird & Michael A. Preston
Local health departments (LHDs) struggle to serve their communities in the face of ongoing fiscal constraints. Fiscal constraints have led to the elimination and reduction of maternal and child health services (MCH). LHDs have used various strategies to minimize the negative impact fiscal constraints of elimination or reduction of services provided to their communities. Many LHDs have used strategies such as developing partnerships. While these strategies are assumed to increase the delivery of services and...

Evidence-based Decision Making to Improve Public Health Practice

Ross C. Brownson, Jonathan E. Fielding & Christopher M. Maylahn
Despite the many accomplishments of public health, greater attention on evidence-based approaches is warranted. This article reviews the concepts of evidence-based public health (EBPH), on which formal discourse originated about 15 years ago. Key components of EBPH include: making decisions based on the best available scientific evidence, using data and information systems systematically, applying program planning frameworks, engaging the community in decision making, conducting sound evaluation, and disseminating what is learned. Core competencies for EBPH...

Using Learning Collaboratives to Improve Public Health Emergency Preparedness Systems

Michael A. Stoto, Harold Cox, Melissa Higdon, Kerry Dunnell & Donald Goldmann
The U.S. National Health Security Strategy calls for the development and wide-spread implementation of quality improvement (QI) tools in public health emergency preparedness (PHEP), including the development of “learning collaboratives,” a structured way for organizations with common interests to close the gap between potential and practice by learning from each other. To test this approach, we developed and assessed separate learning collaboratives focused on PHEP emergency communications and on the use of Medical Reserve Corps...

From the Frontier

Paul C. Erwin
This article is number two in the series From the Frontier: Translating Research to Practice. The narrative describes the interactions between a local health department director and two academicians in addressing the impact of the 2008 financial crisis. In a first set of activities, practice-academic partners used Financial and Operational Ratio and Trend Analysis to identify periods of a negative total margin and the impact of that on the agency’s declining fund balance. The use...

Answering the Call to Integrate

Gulzar Shah
These editorial comments attempt to provide some contextual background to the primary focus of the study by Carlton and Erwin in the March 2015 issue of Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research, integration of health care and public health (executives). The purpose is also to provide a critical assessment of the value of evidence about strategies for integration, identified by the stakeholders in these two industries. Findings from the Carlton and Edwin study...

Editorial Comment: Keeneland Conference Plenary Sessions

Glen Mays

REFERENCE POINT INDENTATION OF HUMAN TRABECULAR BONE TREATED WITH BISPHOSPHONATES FOR VARYING DURATIONS

Drew Jones
Reference point indentation (RPI), a novel form of micro-indentation, quantifies RPI material parameters which correlate with modulus, yield stress, strength, or toughness. Information linking bisphosphonate treatment length with the material properties of osteoporotic trabecular bone is needed to improve patient treatment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine if RPI can be used to successfully evaluate human trabecular bone and if so, determine an optimized test method for using RPI on trabecular bone,...

Loss Aversion in Cocaine Users

Justin Charles Strickland
Numerous studies in behavioral economics have demonstrated that individuals are more sensitive to the prospect of a loss than a gain (i.e., loss aversion). Although loss aversion has been well described in healthy populations, little research exists in individuals with substance use disorders. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate loss aversion in cocaine users. Participants completed measures designed to assess loss aversion for drug and non-drug commodities under varying risk conditions. Cocaine...

How Therapists Use and Choose Mindfulness to Treat Trauma

Jessica M. King
This qualitative study used the phenomenological method to examine how therapists use mindfulness therapies and interventions to address trauma-salient issues with their clients. Specifically, it explored therapists’ use of and choices about mindfulness-based treatments when addressing post-traumatic stress symptoms, and trauma-relevant emotion dysregulation and attachment injury. Informants were associate and fully-licensed local therapists, recruited using convenience sampling and snowball sampling by word-of-mouth referrals. Data was collected by semi-structured interviewing. Interview data was analyzed with Moustakas’...

Development of a Self-Efficacy Scale for Teachers Who Teach Kids With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abigail M. A. Love
This study aimed to measure teachers’ self-efficacy for teaching students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Teacher self-efficacy refers to the belief teachers hold about their ability to affect student learning and has been shown to change teachers’ motivation, stress levels, and amount of given effort (Klassen, Tze, Betts, & Gordon, 2011). Numerous studies have dealt with the measurement of this construct and developed measures that assess teachers in different domains and populations; however, only one...

Characteristics of United States Seafood Consumers

Suliman Almojel
In this thesis, I conducted an analysis of the consumption patterns associated with demographic and socio-economic characteristics, using Tobit and double-hurdle models. Data were collected for 11,574 households from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics for the year of 2014. Specific determinants included household size, age, income, gender, education, race, region, marital status, and whether the household lived in a coastal state. The results reveal that seafood expenditures are sequential decisions. Asian racial groups, households...

COFFEE IN CHINA

Jesse W. Mattingly
Although it remains a tea consuming nation, both production and consumption of coffee in China has been increasing at double-digit rates and is not expected to slow down (International Coffee Organization (ICO), 2015). With investments and upward trends in production and rapid increases in consumption of coffee in China it is important for producers and retailers of the bean1 in China to understand the new Chinese coffee consumer. Using survey data from Wuhan, China we...

SELF-PORTRAIT # 3

Don Adams

From \"Life Stories\"

Paul Hetherington

Deep Sleep, Cognition, Body Weight, Body Temperature, and Behavioral Distress Responses to New Onset Psychosocial Stressors are Blunted with Age in Male F344 Rats

Kendra E. Hargis
Complaints associated with aging, including cognitive deficits and sleep loss, are highly prevalent and negatively impact quality of life. Further, with increased age, humans are also more likely to experience new-onset psychosocial stressors, such as divorce, loss of a spouse, and social isolation. Stress has detrimental consequences that in many ways parallel the effects of aging on sleep and cognition. The long-standing stress/ glucocorticoid hypotheses of brain aging posit that stress exposure exacerbates aging symptoms,...

A DEBRIEFING TECHNIQUE IN HIGH-FIDELITY PATIENT SIMULATION AND COMPETENT DECISION-MAKING ABILITIES AMONG NURSING STUDENTS

Trena Seago
Nursing faculty are utilizing high-fidelity patient simulation (HPS) with debriefing to help engage nursing students in making competent clinical decisions. This quasi-experimental study examined the use of HPS with debriefing and students’ ability to make nursing care decisions using standardized exams. The experimental group received debriefing after HPS and the control group did not receive debriefing after HPS. The pre- and post-test assessed participants’ ability to make clinical care decisions. The analysis of the pre-test...

Considering Crises and Neoliberalism

Andrew Beutel, Delmar Reffett & Ashley Ruderman

Sugarmama

Shannon Sigler

Editor's Preface

Jessica Hollis

Discourse and Civil Repair

Jessica Hollis, Natalia Ruiz-Junco & Brett Smith

Towards Community Without Unity

Jonathan Lepofsky

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