6,789 Works

Calibration Networks

Avi Ostfeld
The system description is available from the article, Battle of the water calibration networks, published in the Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management.

Predicting Infiltration and Surface Runoff from Reconstructed Spoils and Soils

Larry G. Wells, Andrew D. Ward & Ronald E. Phillips
Abstract: A laboratory system was fabricated to measure infiltration and runoff from spoil and soil profiles constructed in rectangular bins. Construction, calibration and operation of a rainfall simulator is discussed and instrumentation used to measure transient infiltration and transmittance of water through experimental profiles is described. Spoil and soil materials from surface mines in Eastern and Western Kentucky were transported to the laboratory and used in constructing experimental profiles in rectangular bins (0.91 x 1.83...

Enzyme and Tissue Alterations in Fishes: A Measure of Water Quality

David E. Hinton, M. W. Kendall & J. C. Koenig
Abstract: A variety of freshwater fishes were studied by light and electron microscopy, enzyme histochemical and biochemical methods, The objective was to determine normal structure and function in specific target organs and to compare these to altered states in aquatic pollution. The basic question, "can fish tissues and enzymes serve as indicators of water quality?," was asked. Microscopic alteration in gill was indicative of copper toxicity at an exposure of 20 parts per billion, Gross...

Ecological Study of the Effects of Strip Mining on the Microbiology of Streams

Ralph H. Weaver & Harry D. Nash
Abstract: The microflora of Cane Branch of Beaver Creek in McCreary County, Kentucky, which drains an area that was strip-mined between 1955 and 1959, was studied and compared with that of Helton Branch which drains a comparable area where there has been no mining. Differences include: the establishment of Ferrcbacillus ferrooxidans, for which procedures were developed for direct colony isolation from the stream; fewer saprophytic bacteria; more numerous and more diversified filamentous and unicellular fungi;...

Economic Development of Areas Contiguous to Multipurpose Reservoirs: The Kentucky-Tennessee Experience

Michael B. Hargrove
Abstract: This study analyzes the effects of multi-purpose reservoir projects on the economic development of areas contiguous to the dam and reservoir. The study concentrates on the development potential in a humid region where the provision of agricultural water is not critical to the economy. Can a reservoir project be a major part of a development program for a local area? How can the favorable effects of the project on the contiguous area be increased?...

Effect of Exogenous Enzymes on Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Barley in Swine and Broiler Chickens

Brian L. Bryson
Abstract: The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of exogenous enzyme supplementation, phytase and xylanase-glucanase, on AME value of barley in poultry and swine. In the first study, 280 broilers were assigned 1 of 8 treatments. Barley inclusion in the diet resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) performance. There was a treatment × phytase × xylanase-glucanase interaction for dry matter retention with birds fed the corn-SBM-barley diet supplemented with phytase and xylanase-glucanase...

Characterizing Nitrogen Loss and Greenhouse Gas Flux Across and Intensification Gradient in Diversified Vegetable Systems

Debendra Shrestha
Abstract: The area of vegetable production is growing rapidly world-wide, as are efforts to increase production on existing lands in these labor- and input-intensive systems. Yet information on nutrient losses, greenhouse gas emissions, and input efficiency is lacking. Sustainable intensification of these systems requires knowing how to optimize nutrient and water inputs to improve yields while minimizing negative environmental consequences. This work characterizes soil nitrogen (N) dynamics, nitrate (NO3¯) leaching, greenhouse gas emissions, and crop...

Assisted Development of Mesophase Pitch with Dispersed Graphene and Its Resulting Carbon Fibers

Aaron Owen
Abstract: The efficacy of dispersed reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a nucleation site for the growth of mesophase in an isotropic pitch was investigated and quantified in this study. Concentrations of rGO were systematically tested in an isotropic petroleum and coal-tar pitch during thermal treatments and compared to pitch without rGO. The mesophase content of each thermally treated pitch was quantified by polarized light point counting. Further characterization of softening temperature and insolubles were quantified....

Modified New York Tunnels System

Graeme Dandy
Description: The New York Tunnels system of the previous case modified to include chlorine concentrations. The minimum required chlorine concentration was assumed to be 0.3 mg/L and the chlorine dosing just downstream of the reservoir could be set to lie between 0.5 and 2.5 mg/L. The average daily demand was 1305 million gallons as in the original New York Tunnels problem (above).

Jilin Network

Graeme Dandy
The Jilin network is a hypothetical network that was first introduced by Bi and Dandy (2014). It is an optimization problem involving the selection of pipe sizes and chlorine dosing. The demand pattern involves a 24 hour extended period simulation. The available pipe sizes and costs were taken from Kadu et al (2008). The average annual demand is 6.66 MGD.

Direct Measurement of Crosstie-Ballast Interface Pressures Using Granular Material Pressure Cells

Travis James Watts
Abstract: The magnitudes and relative pressure distributions transmitted to the crosstie-ballast interface of railroad track significantly influences the subsequent behavior and performance of the overall track structure. If the track structure is not properly designed to distribute the heavy-axle loads of freight cars and locomotives, deficiencies and inherent failures of the crossties, ballast, or underlying support layers can occur, requiring substantial and frequent maintenance activities to achieve requisite track geometrical standards. Incorporating an understanding of...

Classification and Management of Wetlands in the Western Kentucky Coal Field

William J. Mitsch, Robert W. Bosserman, Paul L. Hill & Jan R. Taylor
Abstract: This is the first research report of a three-year project on wetland identification and management criteria in the western Kentucky coal field. The region is approximately 12,000 square kilometers and, due to its slight relief, contains many wetlands, some contiguous with surface coal mining operations. The overall objectives of the research project are 1) to identify, classify, and map wetlands in the western Kentucky coal field; 2) to evaluate the major biotic and abiotic...

Investigation of Amyloid β Oligomer Dissociation Mechanisms by Single Molecule Fluorescence Techniques

Hope Cook Abdalla
Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently considered the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and places a large financial burden on society as healthcare resources are limited and the disease does not have a cure. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the presence of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles; however current literature suggests Aβ oligomers are the main aggregating species leading to AD symptoms. Therefore, the underlying cause of Alzheimer’s, accumulation of amyloid beta, is currently...

Anticipations of Change: A Socio-Economic Description of a Kentucky County Before Reservoir Construction

Charles Robert Smith
Abstract: In the past the construction of large reservoirs in the United States has been evaluated largely in terms of the economic benefit they bring to the area where they are constructed and to the nation. Where human populations are involved, however, a host of social changes occur, many of which fundamentally alter the way of life of a people. This report is part of a larger study which aims at analyzing the social costs...

Analysis of Unsteady Flow Toward Artesian Wells by Three-Dimensional Finite Elements

Yang H. Huang & Shen-Jyh Wu
Abstract: A three-dimensional finite element computer program was developed for analyzing unsteady flow toward artesian wells. The program is designed especially for determining the drawdown around an artesian well penetrating fully or partially a nonhomogeneous and anisotropic aquifer of irregular shape and cross section. It can also be used as a general program for aquifer simulation and evaluation. A major advantage of the program lies in the minimum amount of input data required. By assuming...

Measuring the Intangible Values of Natural Streams, Part II

John A. Dearinger, George M. Woolwine, Charles R. Scroggin, Daniel R. Dolan & James S. Calvin
Abstract: This report describes the work done during Part II of a project which had as its aim the development of a way to quantify those intangible values peculiar to a small stream and its watershed. Part I was concerned with an application of the "uniqueness concept" in the evaluation of fifty-eight Kentucky streams. The results of this effort are in Report #40, U. K. Water Resources Institute (1971). During the second part of the...

Generalized Geologic Map for Land-Use Planning: Perry County, Kentucky

Bart Davidson, Steven E. Webb & Daniel I. Carey
Abstract: This map is not intended to be used for selecting individual sites. Its purpose is to inform land-use planners, government officials, and the public in a general way about geologic bedrock conditions that affect the selection of sites for various purposes. The properties of thick soils may supercede those of the underlying bedrock and should be considered on a site-to-site basis. At any site, it is important to understand the characteristics of both the...

Generalized Geologic Map for Land-Use Planning: Boone County, Kentucky

Richard A. Smath, Bart Davidson, Daniel I. Carey, John D. Keifer & Ken Daniels
Abstract: This map is not intended to be used for selecting individual sites. Its purpose is to inform land-use planners, government officials, and the public in a general way about geologic bedrock conditions that affect the selection of sites for various purposes. The properties of thick soils may supercede those of the underlying bedrock and should be considered on a site-to-site basis. At any site, it is important to understand the characteristics of both the...

Recurrent Neural Networks and Their Applications to RNA Secondary Structure Inference

Devin Willmott
Abstract: Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are state of the art sequential machine learning tools, but have difficulty learning sequences with long-range dependencies due to the exponential growth or decay of gradients backpropagated through the RNN. Some methods overcome this problem by modifying the standard RNN architecure to force the recurrent weight matrix W to remain orthogonal throughout training. The first half of this thesis presents a novel orthogonal RNN architecture that enforces orthogonality of W...

Determination of Trace Elements in Water Utilizaing Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Measurement

Gary D. Christian, J. Preston, III Miles, Ronald Sensmeier, Melvin Sensmeier, Loraine Craig, Lynn Phibrick & Sudarshan Lal
Abstract: A variety of flameless atomic absorption methods have been investigated for the possible determination of trace elements in water. The general applicability of each technique was determined and where applicable, procedures have been developed for the determination of trace elements in natural waters. Metals were preconcentrated by electrodeposition on a wire. The metals were then atomized for atomic absorption measurement by resistive heating of the wire. As little as 0.01 part per million (ppm)...

Photography, Visual Culture, and the (Re)Definition/Queering of the Male Gaze

David Nicholas Martin
Abstract: The traditional notion of the Male Gaze, first conceptualized by feminist film critic Laura Mulvey in 1975, focused on the objectification of women through depictions structured to gratify a male heterosexual perspective. In this chapter we will revisit this concept and investigate how that gaze may have shifted away from a primarily heterosexual perspective to a socially dominant male perspective (maleness here referring to dominance rather than specific gender, just as “whiteness” might refer...

The Effects of Housing on Dairy Cow Comfort, Immune Function, Stress, Productivity, and Milk Quality

Matthew Richard Borchers
Abstract: Mastitis and milk quality affect every dairy farmer across the globe. Sand bedded freestalls are the industry standard for cow comfort, welfare, and the control of environmental mastitis. Compost bedded packs may be a viable alternative to the sand bedded freestall. Compost bedded packs are maintained at a consistent level of moisture, nutrients, and aeration to favor compost microorganisms. Greater bacteria counts in bedding have traditionally been associated with increased mastitis rates and mastitis...

Probing the Low-X Gluon Helicity Distribution with Dijet Double Spin Asymmetries in Polarized Proton Collisions at √S = 510 GeV

Suvarna Ramachandran
Abstract: The proton is a complex subatomic particle consisting of quarks and gluons, and one of the key questions in nuclear physics is how the spin of the proton is distributed amongst its constituents. Polarized deep inelastic scattering experiments with leptons and protons estimate that the quark spin contribution is approximately 30%. The limited kinematic reach of these experiments, combined with the fact that they are only indirectly sensitive to the electrically neutral gluon, means...

Design of a Machine Vision Camera for Spatial Augmented Reality

Matt Phillip Ruffner
Abstract: Structured Light Imaging (SLI) is a means of digital reconstruction, or Three-Dimensional (3D) scanning, and has uses that span many disciplines. A projector, camera and Personal Computer (PC) are required to perform such 3D scans. Slight variances in synchronization between these three devices can cause malfunctions in the process due to the limitations of PC graphics processors as real-time systems. Previous work used a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to both drive the projector...

Real-Time Image Pattern Sensor for Weld Pool Penetration Through Reflection in GTAW

Yu-Ting Chen
Abstract: In gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), weld pool surface contains crucial information for welding development. In this research, simulate skilled welders to control the welding process and determine the penetration stages based on the weld pool reaction. This study focuses on solving the uncertainty of the liquid weld pool in joint bases. The weld pool penetration process is highly depending on how the weld pool surface shape. To observe the weld pool, reflect the...

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