47 Works

Reviewer Acknowledgments

F. Douglas Scutchfield, Charlotte S. Seidman & Robert M., II Shapiro
We offer these reviewers our heartfelt thanks for a task that usually goes unrewarded in the academic environment. This year, we are especially grateful for those people listed below. They have assisted us in reaching the start of our 4th year, by guiding our decisions with your knowledge and capabilities.

They Built My Soul

Bethesda OConnell, Ada Sloop, Nicole Intagliata, Melisa Miller & Megan Quinn
Background: Housing is an important social determinant of health and substandard housing is linked to physical, mental, and social health problems. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to qualitatively assess the impacts of repairs to substandard housing in rural East Tennessee through twenty-eight interviews. Methods: Zoom was utilized for recording phone interviews in January– February 2021 and NVivo software was used for thematic analysis in May–July 2021. Results: Themes that emerged included environmental risk...

The Importance of Time, Place, and Person

Linda Alexander & F. Douglas Scutchfield
Since the 1800s this traditional triad of descriptive epidemiology has allowed for effective interventions to deal with epidemics. A focus on time, place, and person also provides a critical framework for interventions in controlling the epidemic by focusing on those populations with the highest risk for disease.

Comparisons of Cooking, Dietary, and Food Safety Characteristics of Food Secure and Food Insecure Sophomores at a University in Appalachia

Hannah Boone, Melissa D. Gutschall, Alisha Farris, Kimberly Fasczewski, Don Holbert & Laura McArthur
Introduction: Food insecurity means lacking access to adequate, nutritious, and safe food. Collegiate food insecurity rates at ten Appalachian campuses range from 22.4% to 51.8%, and have been associated with unfavorable health and academic outcomes. Purpose: This study compared cooking, dietary, and food safety characteristics of food secure (FS) and food insecure (FI) sophomores at a university in Appalachia in the context of the USDA definition of food security. Methods: Data were collected using an...


Lauri Andress & Keri Valentine
As the website Understanding and Dismantling Racism: Crowdsourcing a Pathway Model in Appalachia explains, we are seeking assistance in refining a pathway model that elucidates institutional racism from the unique standpoint of Appalachia. We think that Appalachia has a distinctive cultural toolkit that shapes its orientation on issues. Our goal is to use crowdsourcing to harness this unique Appalachian ethos to refine the Pathway model on Institutional Racism based on comments, edits, questions, and ideas...

Rural Re-entry and Opioid Use

Joseph Calvert, Megan F. Dickson, Martha Tillson, Erika Pike & Michele Staton
Introduction: Despite improved knowledge of the health care needs of formerly incarcerated women, there exists a gap regarding the relationship between health, health care access, and relapse among rural women returning to the community during the opioid epidemic. Purpose: With an emphasis on health care access, this study examined health-related factors associated with opioid relapse among women reentering the community in rural Appalachia. Methods: As part of a larger study, 400 rural women reporting a...

Triple Negative Breast Cancer in an Appalachian Region

Gina Sizemore & Toni Marie Rudisill
Introduction: Triple negative breast cancer is an aggressive breast cancer with decreased five-year survival, increased risk for recurrence, and higher risk for metastases. Unlike other breast cancers, it has no targeted treatment and has heterogeneous genetics which make classification and treatment difficult. Purpose: The purpose of our research was to compare triple negative breast cancer to non-triple negative breast cancer to identify key epidemiologic factors that might lead to improved basic science directives for biomarkers,...

Review of: Appalachians for Medicaid Website

Kendra Barker
The Journal of Appalachian Health is committed to reviewing published media that relates to contemporary concepts affecting the health of Appalachia. Access to care and the health disparities we face have a direct effect on our experience of illness. Dr. Kendra Barker reviews the website: Appalachians for Medicaid.

A Love Rooted Deep in the Appalachian Mountains: One Part of the Legacy of Doug Scutchfield

Charlotte S. Seidman
F. Douglas Scutchfield, MD, died on Monday, May 23, 2022 in Lexington KY. I have known and worked with Doug for over 40 years and share my personal insights into how he created the Journal of Appalachian Health, one of his last great career adventures and a lasting legacy to his deep investment in the health and vitality of Appalachia and its people.

On We Go, with Hope: Remembering Our Founding Editor-in-Chief, Dr. F. Douglas Scutchfield

Rachel E. Dixon & Randolph F. Wykoff
With the passing of our founding Editor-in-Chief, Dr. F. Douglas Scutchfield, the Journal of Appalachian Health team reflects on a life well lived and a monumental public legacy left behind. We thank "Scutch" for enriching the lives of so many, and we commit to growing the Journal in his honor.

Exploration of Vaccination Attitudes Among Parents and Caregivers in a Rural Appalachian Health Clinic

Radwa Omar, Karen Hande & Natasha McClure
At a rural Appalachian health clinic in Kentucky, 20% of patients under 18 years were not up to date with the CDC-recommended immunization schedule. Reasons parents or caregivers chose to delay or refuse their child’s immunizations were explored using the Caregiver Vaccination Attitude Scale. High levels of trust in the healthcare provider and self-reported vaccine knowledge highlight opportunities for rural healthcare providers to apply evidence-based communication strategies to address vaccine hesitancy and promote the safety...

Establishing Peer Recovery Support Services to Address the Central Appalachian Opioid Epidemic

Stephen M. Davis, Amanda Stover, Herb Linn, Jon Dower, Dan McCawley, Erin Winstanley & Judith Feinberg
Introduction: Central Appalachia has been disproportionately affected by the opioid epidemic and overdose fatalities. We developed West Virginia Peers Enhancing Education, Recovery, and Survival (WV PEERS), a program based on peer recovery support, to engage individuals using opioids and link them with a range of services. Methods: Community partners providing services to individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) were identified and collaborations were formalized using a standardized memorandum of understanding. The program was structured to...

Case Study of a Comprehensive Team-Based Approach to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening

Lauren E. Wright, Adam Baus, Andrea Calkins, Holly Hartman-Adams, Mary E. Conn, Susan Eason & Stephenie Kennedy-Rea
Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men and women in West Virginia. In addition, 51% of all colorectal cancers diagnosed in West Virginia from 2012 to 2016 were detected at either regional (31%) or distant (20%) stages indicating a need for improved early detection. Methods: West Virginia University Cheat Lake Physicians participated in the West Virginia Program to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening, a program of Cancer Prevention and Control...

Diabetes Knowledge, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Risk in Rural West Virginia Counties

Ranjita Misra, Sara Farjo, Renee McGinnis, Megan Adelman Elavsky, Summer Kuhn & Catherine Morton-McSwain
Introduction: A little less than half of American adults have diabetes or pre-diabetes. In 2016, West Virginia (WV) had the highest percentage (15.2%) of adults with diagnosed diabetes in the U.S. Purpose: In partnership with the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA), a cross-sectional study was preformed to assess knowledge, behaviors, and perceptions of diabetes risk. Methods: Data was collected by trained HSTA students and teachers who lived in rural counties in WV. Information was...

Emergence of COVID-19 and Patterns of Early Transmission in an Appalachian Sub-Region

Abbey K. Mann, Timothy A. Joyner, Ingrid E. Luffman, Megan Quinn, William Tollefson & Ashley Frazier
Background: In mid-March 2020, very few cases of COVID-19 had been confirmed in the Central Blue Ridge Region, an area in Appalachia that includes 47 jurisdictions across northeast Tennessee, western North Carolina, and southwest Virginia. Authors described the emergence of cases and outbreaks in the region between March 18 and June 11, 2020. Methods: Data were collected from the health department websites of Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia beginning in mid-March for an ongoing set...

Diseases of Despair

Andrew Howard
Across the nation, and within Appalachia, communities that struggle economically experience greater health challenges, with disparities observed across leading causes of death. Within our region, these disparities are particularly notable across diseases of despair.

Tracking the Impact of Diseases of Despair in Appalachia—2015 to 2018

Megan Heffernan, Michael Meit, Margaret Cherney & Victoria A. Hallman
Introduction: This study provides an update on mortality due to diseases of despair within the Appalachian Region, comparing 2015 to 2018. Methods: Diseases of despair include: alcohol, prescription drug and illegal drug overdose, suicide, and alcoholic liver disease/cirrhosis of the liver. Analyses are based on National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) mortality data for individuals aged 15-64. Results: Between 2015 and 2017, the diseases of despair mortality rate increased in both Appalachia and the non-Appalachian U.S.,...

Review of Digging Our Own Graves

Michael McCawley
The Journal of Appalachian Health is committed to reviewing published media that relates to contemporary concepts affecting the health of Appalachia. Coal mining and black lung disease have long been a central topic of both political and health communities in Appalachia. The book, Digging Our Own Graves (Coal Miners and the Struggle over Black Lung Disease) by Barbara Ellen Smith, is a well-known title, now updated; its newest edition is reviewed.

Access to Health Care in Appalachia

Michele Morrone, Cory E. Cronin, Kristin Schuller & Shannon E. Nicks
Introduction: Health disparities such as cancer and diabetes are well documented in Appalachia. These disparities contribute to health status, and by many indicators, Appalachian people are less healthy than those who live in other parts of the country. Access to health care is one factor that contributes to health disparities. Access to care is complex and involves both intrinsic and extrinsic aspects, including satisfaction with quality of care. This research sought to compare Appalachian to...

Assessing the Intention, Attitudes, and Social Influences on COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors Among Non-rural Black and Rural Appalachian White Populations: A Faith-Based Community Study

Maria L. Gomez, Tofial Azam, Jean Edward, Hannah Bowman & Lovoria B. Williams
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has had detrimental impacts in non-rural Black and rural Appalachian populations. Yet despite the pandemic’s magnitude, there is a scarcity of research exploring potential influences of attitudes and social influences within these populations on their adherence to COVID-19 public health preventive behaviors. Purpose: This study examines the intention, attitudes, and social influences to adhere to COVID-19 preventive behaviors among non-rural Black and rural Appalachian congregants in Kentucky by integrating the Theory...

COVID-19 Pandemic Impact on Essential Public Health Services and Online Health Communication—Appalachian Kentucky, March–December 2020

Margaret A. Riggs, Kenny Ortiz-Jurado & Keith Klein
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic posed many challenges for local health departments (LHDs). This study examines how stay-at-home orders impacted the provision of essential public health services and subsequent increased use of online health communication by LHDs for rural populations in Appalachian Kentucky during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A survey to gather information about provision of essential public health services was administered to five LHDs representing 13 counties between June 2020 and...

A CFD-based scaling analysis on liquid and paint droplets moving through a weak concurrent airflow stream

Masoud Arabghahestani, Nelson Akafuah, Tianxiang Li & Kozo Saito
We conducted volume of fluids (VOF) multiphase model numerical simulations to obtain the interaction among all the major governing forces identified in our previous paper. Our numerical experiments are intended to assess the droplet generation process and the jetting behavior by providing specific input conditions, offering CFD as a tool to study scaling correlations instead of physical experiments. Water droplets that can represent waterborne paints were generated by piezo-generated sinusoidal waveforms at the inlet of...

Registration Year

  • 2022
  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Journal Article


  • West Virginia University
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  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • University of California, San Diego
  • University of Pittsburgh