Community Strengths and Challenges Related to Opioid Use Disorder in Rural Counties of East TennesseeAshlyn Schwartz, Zeruiah V. Buchanan & Laurie Meschke
Introduction: Appalachia, particularly Rural East Tennessee, has been and continues to be disproportionately impacted by opioid use disorder and its many tragic ramifications. Purpose: Community-engaged strategies can inform and support the development of relevant prevention efforts. Hence, people connected to a ten-county rural Appalachian region in East Tennessee were asked to identify and prioritize strengths and challenges related to opioid use disorder (OUD). Methods: Adult community members (n=577) completed a brief survey administered across 11...
Prevalence and Types of Drugs Used Among Hepatitis A Patients During Outbreaks Associated with Person-to-Person Transmission, Kentucky, Michigan, and West Virginia, 2016–2019Megan G. Hofmeister, Alice Asher, Christopher M. Jones, Ryan J. Augustine, Cole Burkholder, Jim Collins, Monique A. Foster, Shannon McBee, Erica D. Thomasson, Doug Thoroughman, Mark K. Weng & Philip R. Spradling
Background: People who use drugs are at increased risk for hepatitis A virus infection. Since 1996, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended hepatitis A vaccination for people who use drugs. Since 2016, the U.S. has experienced widespread hepatitis A outbreaks associated with person-to-person transmission. Purpose: To describe the prevalence of drug use, route of use, and drugs used among hepatitis A outbreak-associated patients. Methods: State outbreak and medical records were reviewed to describe...
Background: At the time of our writing, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to cause significant disruption to daily lives. In Kentucky, the burdens from this disease are higher, and vaccination rates for COVID-19 are lower, in comparison to the U.S. as a whole. Understanding vaccine intentions across key subpopulations is critical to increasing vaccination rates. Purpose: This study explores COVID-19 vaccine intentions in Kentucky across demographic subpopulations and also investigates the influences on vaccine intention of...
Evaluating Social Support and T2D Risk Factors Among Members of Rural-Dwelling Grandparent-Headed HouseholdsBrittany L. Smalls, Abebola Adegboyega, Kelly N.B. Palmer & Jennifer Hatcher
Purpose: This study examines the associations of social support and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors among members of rural-dwelling, grandparent-headed households (GHH). Methods: Prospective data were collected from rural-dwelling members of GHH with no known diagnosis of T2D. Data collected on family characteristics, T2D clinical risk factors, and social support were assessed. Results: Sixty-six grandparents and 72 grandchildren participated in the study. The average age and HbA1Cs were 59.4 years and 6.2% ± 1.4...
The Journal of Appalachian Health is committed to reviewing published media that relates to contemporary concepts affecting the health of Appalachia. Access to care remains one of the biggest challenges to Appalachian Health. The book, Wide Neighborhoods: A Story of the Frontier Nursing Service by Mary Breckinridge, is a well-known title that seems as relevant today as it was in 1952.
Changes in Adolescent Birth Rates within Appalachian Subregions and Non-Appalachian Counties in the United States, 2012–2018Nathan Hale, Kathleen Tatro, Sylvester Olubolu Orimaye, Michael Smith, Michael Meit, Kate E. Beatty & Amal Khoury
Background: Adolescent births are associated with numerous challenges. While adolescent birth rates have declined across the U.S., disparities persist and little is known about the extent to which broader declines are seen within Appalachia. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which adolescent birth rates have declined across the subregions of Appalachia relative to non-Appalachia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of adolescent birth rates between 2012 and 2018 using...
The Journal of Appalachian Health is going through some changes that are reflected in the masthead and banner. We say farewell to some colleagues and welcome the new faces.
With the publication of this issue, I am retiring and formally handing over the reins as managing editor of the Journal of Appalachian Health to Rachel Dixon. I have had a 50+ year career and have been blessed to have had the opportunity to meet and work with the best health professionals in preventive medicine and public health.
We offer these reviewers our heartfelt thanks for a task that usually goes unrewarded in the academic environment. This year, we are especially grateful for those people listed below. They have assisted us in reaching the start of our 4th year, by guiding our decisions with your knowledge and capabilities.
Background: Housing is an important social determinant of health and substandard housing is linked to physical, mental, and social health problems. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to qualitatively assess the impacts of repairs to substandard housing in rural East Tennessee through twenty-eight interviews. Methods: Zoom was utilized for recording phone interviews in January– February 2021 and NVivo software was used for thematic analysis in May–July 2021. Results: Themes that emerged included environmental risk...
F. Douglas Scutchfield, MD, died on Monday, May 23, 2022 in Lexington KY. I have known and worked with Doug for over 40 years and share my personal insights into how he created the Journal of Appalachian Health, one of his last great career adventures and a lasting legacy to his deep investment in the health and vitality of Appalachia and its people.
With the passing of our founding Editor-in-Chief, Dr. F. Douglas Scutchfield, the Journal of Appalachian Health team reflects on a life well lived and a monumental public legacy left behind. We thank "Scutch" for enriching the lives of so many, and we commit to growing the Journal in his honor.
Exploration of Vaccination Attitudes Among Parents and Caregivers in a Rural Appalachian Health ClinicRadwa Omar, Karen Hande & Natasha McClure
At a rural Appalachian health clinic in Kentucky, 20% of patients under 18 years were not up to date with the CDC-recommended immunization schedule. Reasons parents or caregivers chose to delay or refuse their child’s immunizations were explored using the Caregiver Vaccination Attitude Scale. High levels of trust in the healthcare provider and self-reported vaccine knowledge highlight opportunities for rural healthcare providers to apply evidence-based communication strategies to address vaccine hesitancy and promote the safety...
Assessing the Intention, Attitudes, and Social Influences on COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors Among Non-rural Black and Rural Appalachian White Populations: A Faith-Based Community StudyMaria L. Gomez, Tofial Azam, Jean Edward, Hannah Bowman & Lovoria B. Williams
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has had detrimental impacts in non-rural Black and rural Appalachian populations. Yet despite the pandemic’s magnitude, there is a scarcity of research exploring potential influences of attitudes and social influences within these populations on their adherence to COVID-19 public health preventive behaviors. Purpose: This study examines the intention, attitudes, and social influences to adhere to COVID-19 preventive behaviors among non-rural Black and rural Appalachian congregants in Kentucky by integrating the Theory...
COVID-19 Pandemic Impact on Essential Public Health Services and Online Health Communication—Appalachian Kentucky, March–December 2020Margaret A. Riggs, Kenny Ortiz-Jurado & Keith Klein
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic posed many challenges for local health departments (LHDs). This study examines how stay-at-home orders impacted the provision of essential public health services and subsequent increased use of online health communication by LHDs for rural populations in Appalachian Kentucky during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A survey to gather information about provision of essential public health services was administered to five LHDs representing 13 counties between June 2020 and...
A CFD-based scaling analysis on liquid and paint droplets moving through a weak concurrent airflow streamMasoud Arabghahestani, Nelson Akafuah, Tianxiang Li & Kozo Saito
We conducted volume of fluids (VOF) multiphase model numerical simulations to obtain the interaction among all the major governing forces identified in our previous paper. Our numerical experiments are intended to assess the droplet generation process and the jetting behavior by providing specific input conditions, offering CFD as a tool to study scaling correlations instead of physical experiments. Water droplets that can represent waterborne paints were generated by piezo-generated sinusoidal waveforms at the inlet of...
University of Kentucky7
East Tennessee State University3
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention2
University of California, San Diego1
University of Tennessee at Knoxville1
West Virginia State Department of Health and Human Resources1
University of Pikeville1
University of Arizona1