1,549 Works

Loads on Box Culverts under High Embankments:

David L. Allen & Rick L. Russ
Pressure and design analyses of five reinforced concrete box culverts are presented. Three of the culverts were constructed with the imperfect trench. Measured pressures on the culverts are compared to pressures predicted by the theories of Marston, Spangler, and Castes. Also, comparisons are made between measured pressures and calculated design pressures using AASHTO's Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 1.2.2(A). It is noted that the imperfect trench is, apparently, effective in reducing pressures on the top...

Analysis of Time-Independent Consolidation Data

E. Gregory McNulty, Tommy C. Hopkins & C. Thomas Gorman
The one-dimensional laboratory consolidation test developed by Terzaghi permits deformation and drainage only in the vertical direction. The stress-strain characteristics of data obtained from this test are normally studied using a semilogarithmic graphical representation, that is, vertical strain or void ratio is plotted as a function of the logarithm of effective stress. Such a representation permits an analysis of the stress history and compressibility characteristics of soils. Knowledge of these material characteristics is of great...

Simulation of External-Internal and Through Trips for Small Urban Areas

Jerry G. Pigman
The objective of this study was to develop models which would simulate internal-external trips and external-external (through) trips. Regression analysis and cross-classification of data were tested in an attempt to predict the number of internal-external trips and the percentage of through trips. Regression analysis was used in the development of a through-trip distribution model. Grouping data for analysis created some problems; however, trial-and-error evaluation enabled selection of variables which produced reasonable results. Variables found to...

Evaluation of Paint Stripe Beads

Jerry G. Pigman & Kenneth R. Agent
This report presents another phase of a study on evaluation of paint stripes and glass beads. The results from the previous phases of this study indicated that large-scale, experimental evaluation of a 1.65 refractive-index bead and a large-gradation, 1.52 refractive-index bead was warranted. Poor embedment of beads, however, precluded the evaluation because the quick-drying paint used did not allow beads to be properly embedded. After progressive thinning of the paint with solvent, adequate bead embedment...

Speed Reduction in School Zones

Charles V. Zegeer, James H. Havens & Robert C. Deen
The use of flashing beacons together with signing has become somewhat standard throughout the country to alert drivers to the presence of school children and to regulate vehicle speed in school zones. Yellow beacons, usually two flashing alternately, may be used with both warning signs and regulatory signs. The only regulatory signs related to school zones are speed-limit signs. Both hazard identification beacons and speed-limit sign beacons are intended to operate only during hours when...

At-Grade Intersections versus Grade-Separated Interchanges

Kenneth R. Agent
In an effort to reduce traffic in central business districts, bypasses have been built to provide through traffic a circumferential route and also to ease the burden of traffic in downtown areas. In many cases, though, bypasses have created a serious accident potential because they were built with at-grade intersections and no access control. This has led to commercial developments along the bypass and congestion at major intersections. When congestion increases at an intersection, traffic...

A Pavement Design Schema

James H. Havens, Robert C. Deen & Herbert F. Southgate
Elastic theory and 40 years of empirical flexible pavement design in Kentucky have been joined into the design system presented herein. A brief discussion is presented of the coupling mechanisms relating experience to theoretical analyses. An annotated design procedure is presented as a guide for pavement designers. Design nomographs account for a wide range of input parameters and permit the designer a wide choice of alternative thickness designs.

Interim Report on Rural Secondary, Base Stabilization Projects

Robert C. Deen & J. D. Shackelford
Early in 1962, the Division of Rural Highways selected several base stabilization projects for construction during the 1962 season. These projects were to involve the addition of 1-1/2 to 3 inches of compacted granular base to existing, rural secondary, traffic-bound macadam roads. Since these roads were not intended to be surfaced, calcium chloride and sodium chloride were to be added to the additional granular base material in an attempt to retain or "hold" the aggregate...

Accidents at Median Crossovers

Gordon R. Garner
Safety improvements are often controversial subjects, especially when the subject is highways. Judgments must be made weighing lives and injuries against the hard realities of financing the construction and maintenance of highway systems. Median crossovers on rural and urban freeways and expressways are controversial design features. State police and maintenance forces claim that median crossovers are necessary and essential for their work and that more frequent location of crossovers is desirable. Engineers involved with highway...

Weighing Vehicles in Motion

An agreement between the Kentucky Department of Highways and the University of Kentucky Research Foundation dated October 1, 1964 defined the minimum objectives of the subject research project as follows: A. Developing and furnishing plans for an in-stream transducer system for dynamic axle weighing with manufacturers' specifications for the components required. B. Constructing and furnishing a scale having an optimum mechanical configuration and which would perform the dynamic axle-weighing function in an overall data-gathering system,...

Economic Impacts of the Highway Beautification Act in Kentucky

Vincent W. McGurl
The Highway Beautification Act of 1965, Public Law 89-285, has as one of its main purposes "the control of outdoor advertising along interstate and all Federally aided primary highways "in order to protect "the public investment in such highways, to promote the safety and recreational value of public travel and "to preserve natural beauty." The Secretary of Commerce, in cooperation with the state highway departments, was authorized to make a comprehensive study of the economic...

Flow Behavior of Asphalt Cements

W. A. Mossbarger & John A. Deacon
The Kentucky Department of Highways in cooperation with the Bureau of Public Roads is conducting a continuing investigation of the fundamental mechanical properties of flexible pavement materials. The ultimate objective of this investigation is to gain sufficient knowledge of the fundamental mechanical behavior of these materials to support the establishment of a responsive flexible pavement design procedure. A preliminary report, issued in 1964, contained the results of the preparatory phase of this investigation. This report...

Strain-Rate Selection in the Constant-Rate-of-Strain Consolidation Test

C. Thomas Gorman
Constant-rate-of-strain (CRS) consolidation tests were performed on remolded kaolinite specimens. The effect of strain rate on CRS test data is shown. A relation between soil parameters and strain rate was developed and used to formulate a strain-rate selection procedure. The fmal selectlon procedure is based on liquid limit and initial degree of saturation of the specimen and is presented in graphical form. The procedure is applicable to all types of soils.

Hot Mix Sand Surfacing

James H. Havens
Everyone has some compassion toward drivers who become victims of pavement slipperiness. The development of slipperiness on a road surface follows one of the laws of nature. Why not, then, employ other laws provided by nature to better advantage? For example, craftsmen use grinders, abrasives, buffers, etc. to achieve glossy surface finishes. Traffic does the same to our pavements. We might employ craftsmens' routine in reverse -- that is, roughen the surface. Better still, the...

Evaluation of Watertight Bridge Expansion Joints

Wm. Vernon Azevedo
Engineers have long recognized the importance of bridge expansion joints. The inadequacy in design of such joints has also been realized. Proprietary products are now available which may eliminate well-documented problems associated with bridge expansion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the field performance of such products.

Experimental Overlay of Glazon over Two Bridge Decks

Assaf S. Rahal & A. B. Blankenship
In accordance with a Personal Service Agreement entered into with the Glazon Industries, Inc., on July 2, 1971, the two subject decks were patched and overlayed with Glazon. On July 27, 1971, work started on RP 106-286-HG3, KY 395 bridge over I 64 in Shelby County. Work consisted of routing old concrete and sandblasting the surface (Figures 1 and 2). State personnel and equipment were used for all cleaning operations. The same procedures were followed...

High-Intensity Reflective Materials for Signs

Rolands L. Rizenbergs
The intuitive need for improved sign legibility has increased through the years as traffic volumes, speeds and roadway designs have advanced. Because of increased traffic volumes, low-beam headlight illumination at night has become more imperative. Signs are being located farther from the travelled lanes; higher speeds are requiring messages to be more legible at greater distances (for driver decision and response). Recent studies have indicated that even Engineering Grade (2200 and 3200 Series) Scotchlite or...

Traffic Controls for Maintenance on High Speed Highways

William M. Seymour
Observations were first made at lane closures on interstate highways where yellow warning signs were erected routinely in conjunction with contract work. Later data provided direct comparison between new yellow and new orange signs. One sign scheme was used throughout the study. Driver obedience improved when new signs of either color were used; this finding implies that signs should always be maintained in good condition. Orange signs were slightly more effective than yellow signs in...

High-Intensity Reflective Materials for Signs

Rolands L. Rizenbergs
Field observations and laboratory tests and evaluations were conducted on High-Intensity and Engineering grade materials (Scotchlite), manufactured by the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, and were compared in regard to reflectivity, durability, and cost. The High-Intensity type materials were found to have outstanding performance characteristics in comparison to Engineering Grade materials. The material significantly enhances sign legibility under low-beam illumination, and accelerated weathering tests showed superior durability.

Slope Stability Analysis:

Steve M. Yoder & Tommy C. Hopkins
A computer program based on Bishop's simplified method of slices (1954) and capable of analyzing the slope stability of a multilayered soil mass is described. The computer program was specifically developed for analyzing the slope stability of highway bridge approach embankments; however, it can be applied to a broad spectrum of practical slope configurations and bearing capacity problems. Details of the use, applications, and accuracy of the program are presented. Important features of the computer...

Investigation of Use of Preformed, Compressed Neoprene Seals in Joints of Concrete Bridge Decks

Dennis L. Willaman
Progressive deterioration and staining of concrete bridge substructures and erosion of abutments may, in many instances, be attributed to the leakage of bridge deck joints. The primary difficulty in maintaining a properly sealed joint is the continual expansion and contraction of the bridge spans. Joint seals, of course, must remain in contact with both faces of the disjointed sections and remain flexible at all temperatures encountered. A study was initiated by the Division of Research...

Highway Construction in Windblown Silts of Western Kentucky

Robert C. Deen
It has been shown that engineering experience and performance histories of earthwork structures and foundations in distinctive physiographic regions provide valuable insights applicable to the planning and construction of future projects. Geologic information further categorizes earth materials on the basis of parent material and geologic processes which modify the rock and soil masses. A knowledge of the resulting topographic expression or landforms and reference to geologic and soils information contained in surveys, reports, and maps...

THE ARABIC PARTICLES ‘INNA WA AḪAWĀTU-HĀ’ AT THE SYNTAX-SEMANTICS INTERFACE

Anfal Mudhafar Ali
In Arabic inna wa-aḫawātu-hā ‘inna and its related sisters’ are traditionally considered as verb-like particles. They are specified as introducing equational sentences and change their constituents’ case to a different pattern from what verbs do. Therefore, they are called nawāsiḫ in Arabic, or words that cause a shift to the accusative case (Ryding 2005). The medieval grammarians’ treatment of inna and its sisters as verb-like particles and of the equational sentence in general is based...

The Crab Orchard and Osgood Formations:

Robert C. Deen
For the past few years, the Division of Research, as a part of its continuing study of the occurrence of landslides in Kentucky, has reviewed and studied several sites in order to identify and delineate the geologic and soil formations which might be involved in the unstable earth masses. After a study of a number of landslides, it became evident that one particular material was highly susceptible to the development of landslides. This material, in...

Thermodynamics and Kinetics of the Three-Way Junction of Phi29 Motor pRNA and its Assembly into Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Delivery to Prostate Cancer

Daniel W. Binzel
The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology necessitates creation of functional RNA nanoparticles, but has been limited by particle instability. Previously, it was found the three-way junction (3WJ) of the Phi29 DNA packaging motor pRNA was found to be ultra-stable and assemble in solution without the presence of metal ions. The three-way junction is composed of three short oligo RNA strands and proven to be thermodynamically stable. Here the assembly mechanism, thermodynamic and enzymatic stabilities, and...

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  • 2016
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    1,549