1,549 Works

Spaces of Solidarity

Carrie Mott
Interpersonal conflict poses a serious threat to social justice activism. In the context of multi-racial solidarity activism in southern Arizona, conflicts are often born of the challenges accompanying differentials in social privilege due to differences in race and ethnicity relative to white supremacist settler colonialism. We can see these tensions topologically through the very different relationships white, Latin@, Chican@, and indigenous activists have to on-going processes of white supremacy. This dissertation explores the factors contributing...

The Effect of Digital Media on Emergent Literacy Skills

Ciera B. Mills
This review examines the effectiveness of digital media on emergent literacy skills, specifically alphabet knowledge, print awareness, and phonological awareness, on children birth to four. A systematic search of the literature identified 13 studies that met the pre-determined inclusion criteria. Two independent raters evaluated each study for methodological quality and assigned appropriate levels of evidence based on ASHA levels of evidence. Results found that specific features of digital media can lead to positive effects on...

Composite Pavement Design

James H. Havens
There is an aura of superiority attached to the work "composite"--that is to say, the composite of anything is expected to be superior to its distinct elements of parts. It will suffice here to define a composite pavement as being compounded of "rigid" and "flexible" parts or layers. In reality, we mean layers of portland cement concrete and bituminous concrete--each of which is admirably sufficient in itself or may be so down-graded to satisfy lesser...

Relationship Between Kentucky CBR and Slake Durability

Tommy C. Hopkins
The design of pavements requires a knowledge of the relative strength and durability of subgrade materials. In Kentucky, the CBR (California Bearing Ratio) test is used to define the relative bearing strength of subgrade materials. Pavement thickness can be obtained if traffic loadings and CBR values are known. Durability of subgrade materials can be characterized using the slake-durability test. The purposes of this study were to correlate values of (soaked) KYCBR and slake-durability indices and...

A Mixed Methods Approach To Investigating Cognitive Load And Cognitive Presence In An Online And Face-To-Face College Algebra Course

Jodi J. Mills
Most research on Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller, 1988) has uncovered many instructional design considerations for learning complex tasks. Additionally, the Community of Inquiry (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) framework describes many of the learning experiences in online education. A gap existed in the literature for investigating cognitive load over the duration of a college algebra course and for investigating the relationship between cognitive load and cognitive presence. This research study has addressed this gap by...

COMPARISON OF QUICK METHODS FOR DETERMINING BODY COMPOSITION IN FEMALE COLLEGIATE ATHLETES AND OBESE FEMALES

Mandee E. Martin
The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a tool used broadly by public health agencies to assess weight in populations. However, when differentiating between fat mass and fat free mass the formula (BMI = weight in kilograms/height in meters2) is not applicable. Research suggests that evaluating body fat percentage and adipose tissue deposition may provide a nuanced indication of overall health, making it more accurate on an individual basis. This study evaluated four methods (Body Mass...

Organizing for Change

Andrea Rae Borregard
Community colleges constitute a special type of higher education organization: their complex mission, dynamics, personnel structures, and values require a distinct set of understandings and skills to lead and manage them well. Most of the research on leadership in community colleges focuses on leaders in positions of power (presidents, provosts, etc.) and not on grassroots or bottom-up leadership. Bottom-up leaders are individuals who perpetuate change without having the backing of a formal position of authority...

Negotiating an Electorate

Jill Marie Abney
Five Reform Acts passed over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries gradually increased the size of the British electorate. Negotiations over lowering property, rent, and lodging restrictions led to new Acts that slowly increased the number of Britons deemed worthy to vote. This dissertation examines the extent class and gender were relevant to those negotiations of British citizenship over the course of those five Acts. The project scrutinizes the language used in Parliamentary...

An Installation of an Experimental Joint for Concrete Pavements

Harvey J. Field
The experimental joint described in this paper involves the use of a new type load transfer set-up which was developed by the Oxford Manufacturing Company, Oxford, Indiana, and produced by the Reynolds Metals Company. The producers designed this apparatus on the assumption that the present joints used in concrete pavement construction are not adequate. For example, from the standpoint of load bearing, the dowel bars which theoretically carry the load from one slab to the...

Investigation of Field and Laboratory Methods for Evaluating Subgrade Support in the Design of Highway Flexible Pavements

Robert F. Baker & William B. Drake
Four different methods of evaluating subgrade support under flexible pavements were studied: (1) Field CBR; (2) North Dakota Cone; (3) Bearing Plates; and (4) Laboratory CBR. Approximately 435 miles of flexible pavements in Kentucky were represented. The roads were selected so as to give a wide range in conditions of traffic, soil areas, and design. A total of 185 locations were investigated, and 338 cone tests, 291 field CBR's, and 117 series of plate tests...

An Examination of Equipment for Preventing Segregation in Storage of Coarse Aggregates

S. T. Collier
This is a report of an investigation of a device developed for the purpose of reducing to a minimum the segregation of coarse aggregates during delivery from chutes or conveyors to bins and other storage or transportation facilities. Producers and consumers are always confronted, more or less, with segregation of materials, but methods toward its elimination have been moderately successful at best. As a matter of fact, the most successful of those methods have been...

A Study of the Effect of Blended Coarse Aggregate on Air-Entrained Concrete Progress Report 3

S. T. Collier
The purpose of this investigetion was to study the durability characteristics of a river gravel, used as coarse aggregate for concrete, with respect to four major fractions separated in accordance to their general mineralogical classification. This aggregate was from the same stock of Ohio River gravel that was used in earlier phases of this Project reported in 1947. Since this gravel consisted of several rock types varying in mineralogic constituents, it was conceivable that poor...

HISTOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF REPEATED MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY IN MICE

Amanda Nicholle Bolton Hall
The majority of the estimated three million traumatic brain injuries that occur each year are classified as “mild” and do not require surgical intervention. However, debilitating symptoms such as difficulties focusing on tasks, anxiety, depression, and visual deficits can persist chronically after a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) even if an individual appears “fine”. These symptoms have been observed to worsen or be prolonged when an individual has suffered multiple mild TBIs. To test the...

Kronecker's Theory of Binary Bilinear Forms with Applications to Representations of Integers as Sums of Three Squares

Jonathan A. Constable
In 1883 Leopold Kronecker published a paper containing “a few explanatory remarks” to an earlier paper of his from 1866. His work loosely connected the theory of integral binary bilinear forms to the theory of integral binary quadratic forms. In this dissertation we discover the statements within Kronecker's paper and offer detailed arithmetic proofs. We begin by developing the theory of binary bilinear forms and their automorphs, providing a classification of integral binary bilinear forms...

BRIDGE END SETTLEMENT EVALUATION AND PREDICTION

Jiwen Zhang
A bridge approach is usually built to provide a smooth and safe transition for vehicles from the roadway pavement to the bridge structure. However, differential settlement between the roadway pavement resting on embankment fill and the bridge abutment built on more rigid foundation often creates a bump in the roadway. Previous work examined this issue at a microscopic level and presented new methods for eliminating or minimizing the effects at specific locations. This research studies...

3D Infrastructure Condition Assessment For Rail Highway Applications

Teng Wang
Highway roughness is a concern for both the motoring public and highway authorities. Roughness may even increase the risk of crashes. Rail-highway grade crossings are particularly problematic. Roughness may be due to deterioration or simply due to the way the crossing was built to accommodate grade change, local utilities, or rail elevation. With over 216,000 crossings in the US, maintenance is a vast undertaking. While methods are available to quantify highway roughness, no method exists...

Maternal Allostatic Load During Pregnancy

Molly E.M. Sayre
Allostatic load, or the “wear and tear” on the body due to stress, is thought to have a negative impact on length of pregnancy and contribute to health disparities in preterm birth. However, the magnitude of the effect on birth outcomes is unknown, in part due to questions of timing of measurement of allostatic load during pregnancy. This study used linear regression analysis of data from 156 pregnant women to test whether allostatic load is...

KINETICS OF MOLTEN METAL CAPILLARY FLOW IN NON-REACTIVE AND REACTIVE SYSTEMS

Hai Fu
Wetting and spreading of liquid systems on solid substrates under transient conditions, driven by surface tension and viscous forces along with the interface interactions (e.g., a substrate dissolution or diffusion and/or chemical reaction) is a complex problem, still waiting to be fully understood. In this study we have performed an extensive experimental investigation of liquid aluminum alloy spreading over aluminum substrate along with corroboration with theoretical modeling, performed in separate but coordinate study. Wetting and...

The Use and Performance of Geogrids in Kentucky

Aric Cowne, Richard Reitenour, David L. Allen & R. Clark Graves
This report will investigate the history and usage of geogrids, a subfamily of geosynthetics, in Kentucky. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM - 1994) has defined a geosynthetic as a planar product manufactured from a polymeric material used with soil, rock, earth, or other geotechnical-related material as an integral part of a civil engineering project, structure, or system. Geogrids, geosynthetics primarily used for reinforcement, are formed by a regular network of tensile elements...

Pavement Roughness, Measurement and Evaluation

Rolands L. Rizenbergs, James L. Burchett & Larry E. Davis
Vertical accelerations of a passenger in an automobile are automatically summed while traveling a section of road at 51.5 mph (23.0 m/s). A roughness index is obtained by dividing this sum by the time elapsed during the test. Continuity in measurements since 1957 has been preserved through correlations among successive vehicles involved and reference pavements. In general, bituminous construction has yielded smoother-riding surfaces than concrete construction. The smoothness of concrete pavements, however, has improved on...

Accident and Economic Analyses of Access Control on Several Bypasses

Kenneth R. Agent
In an effort to relieve congestion on urban streets, bypasses have been built to provide through traffic a route by which the downtown areas can be avoided. In many cases, though, bypasses have created a serious accident potential because they were built with at-grade intersections and no access control. This leads to commercial developments along the bypass and congestion at major intersections. Bypasses were constructed in this manner because of the high initial cost involved...

Rheological Response of Asphalts

David L. Allen
The rheological response of asphalt cements to shearing stresses is presented. The behavioral characteristics were measured using a rotating coaxial cylinder viscometer. Little or no development of theory is presented. The viscoelastic portion of deformation is discussed in terms of the creep function. Plastic deformation is described using the definitions of apparent and plastic viscosities. Curves showing the effects of temperature, stress level and penetration on these two major components of strain are presented and...

Comparative Evaluation of RAYGO 404 Vibratory Roller

Jerry D. Ross, Herbert F. Southgate & Donald C. Newberry
Roller evaluations are rather phenomenological -- that is, one must rely somewhat on observations. Density measurements following each excursion of the compactor may not relate directly to the work done in compressing the layer. When no increase in density is realized, no work is accomplished. Work is defined here in the classical sense. Energy expended without producing an increase in density is wasted. Thereafter, the only way additional classical work can be done on the...

Characteristics of Kentucky Drivers

Kenneth R. Agent
The characteristics of the driver population in Kentucky were examined and related to their driving record. Also, the characteristics of high-risk drivers were determined and compared to the driver population. Accident records and responses to a questionnaire distributed to a random sample of the driver population and to high-risk drivers were the data source for the study. Frequency of accidents was found to be much higher among males than it was among females and was...

Warrants for Left-Turn Signal Phasing

Kenneth R. Agent & Robert C. Deen
Warrants for the installation of left-turn phasing were developed. A review of literature was conducted along with a survey of the policies of other states. Field data of delays and conflicts were taken before and after installation of exclusive left-turn signalization. Left-turn delay studies were conducted at intersections with varying volume conditions. Analysis of the effect on accidents of adding a left-turn phase was made. The relationship between left-turn accidents and conflicts was investigated. Other...

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