### Powers of the State of Kentucky in Implementing an Effluent Tax as a Part of an Interstate Ohio River Basin Water Pollution Control Program

Anita L. Morse & Edward Zeigler
Abstract: This report is intended to set forth some of the problems and solutions involved in financing and regulating water quality control. The purpose is to record some of the major problems confronting those who legislate water quality, those who espouse technological answers, and those who see the problem in terms of economic solutions. The limits placed by political and institutional constraints on solutions to these problems are frequently not understandable. Within this report are...

### A Brain-Computer Interface for Closed-Loop Sensory Stimulation During Motor Training in Patients with Tetraplegia

Sarah Helen Thomas
Abstract: Normal movement execution requires proper coupling of motor and sensory activation. An increasing body of literature supports the idea that incorporation of sensory stimulation into motor rehabilitation practices increases its effectiveness. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) studies, in which afferent and efferent pathways are activated in tandem, have brought attention to the importance of well-timed stimulation rather than non-associative (i.e., open-loop) activation. In patients with tetraplegia resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI), varying degrees of...

### Effects of Stream Channel Improvements on Downstream Floods

Yang H. Huang & Ronald K. Gaynor
Abstract: This report presents a self-calibrating watershed model for predicting the effect of channel improvements on downstream floods. The model is called MOPSET because it is a modified version of OPSET developed several years ago at the University of Kentucky. OPSET is a computerized procedure for determining an optimum set of parameter values by matching synthesized flows with recorded flows. Major modifications include the replacement of the modified Muskingum method of channel routing by a...

### Analysis of Unsteady Flow Toward Artesian Wells by Three-Dimensional Finite Elements

Yang H. Huang & Shen-Jyh Wu
Abstract: A three-dimensional finite element computer program was developed for analyzing unsteady flow toward artesian wells. The program is designed especially for determining the drawdown around an artesian well penetrating fully or partially a nonhomogeneous and anisotropic aquifer of irregular shape and cross section. It can also be used as a general program for aquifer simulation and evaluation. A major advantage of the program lies in the minimum amount of input data required. By assuming...

### Determination of Trace Elements in Water Utilizaing Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Measurement

Gary D. Christian, J. Preston, III Miles, Ronald Sensmeier, Melvin Sensmeier, Loraine Craig, Lynn Phibrick & Sudarshan Lal
Abstract: A variety of flameless atomic absorption methods have been investigated for the possible determination of trace elements in water. The general applicability of each technique was determined and where applicable, procedures have been developed for the determination of trace elements in natural waters. Metals were preconcentrated by electrodeposition on a wire. The metals were then atomized for atomic absorption measurement by resistive heating of the wire. As little as 0.01 part per million (ppm)...

### Metabolic Capabilities of Sulfur Oxidizing Bacteria and Their Role in Water Pollution

M. I. H. Aleem
Abstract: This report describes investigations into the physiology of microorganisms that are commonly involved in the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play a potent role in several fields of economic importance such as strip mining operations, water pollution, corrosion, metallurgy, petroleum technology and soil fertility processes. The oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds was studied in the chemolithotrophs Thiobacillus denitrificans, Thiobacillus A2, Thiobacillus neapolitanus, and a photolithotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Cell...

### Deterioration Modelling of Bridges on BrM 5.2.3

Sudhir Palle & Theodore, II Hopwood
The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) initiated the study KYSPR 17-532, “Deterioration Modelling of Bridges on BrM 5.2.3,” so it could receive assistance identifying and employing bridge deterioration and cost forecast modeling for its bridge maintenance program. The Kentucky Transportation Center (KTC) was to help coordinate KYTC in adapting BrM 5.2.3’s deterioration and cost modelling features and update the existing guide material to reflect all changes for BrM 5.2.3. This study included acquiring access and becoming...

### Developing Material Specification and Application Criteria for Sealing Concrete Bridge Decks

Danny Wells, Sudhir Palle & Theodore, II Hopwood
The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) has more aggressively pursued preventive maintenance in recent years. Sealing concrete bridge decks is one preventive maintenance activity the Cabinet has actively pursued. KYTC’s Divisions of Maintenance and Structural Design requested assistance from researchers at the Kentucky Transportation Center (KTC) in developing a material specification and application criteria for sealing concrete bridge decks at an appropriate time in their life cycle. To develop a material specification and application criteria for...

### BIOINFORMATIC AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSES OF AXOLOTL REGENERATION

Salamanders have an extraordinary ability to regenerate appendages after loss or amputation, irrespective of age. My dissertation research explored the possibility that regenerative ability is associated with the evolution of novel, salamander-specific genes. I utilized transcriptional and genomic databases for the axolotl to discover previously unidentified genes, to the exclusion of other vertebrate taxa. Among the genes identified were multiple mmps (Matrix metalloproteases) and a jnk1/mapk8 (c-jun-N-terminal kinase) paralog. MMPs function in extracellular matrix remodeling...

### Major Lower Paleozoic Horizons of the Southern Illinois Basin

John B. Hickman
The geology exposed at the surface in the southern Illinois Basin has been mapped in great detail by countless workers over the past century. With the exception of limited and scattered exposures in incised river valleys, the oldest rocks exposed outside of the Jessamine, Nashville, and Ozark Domes surrounding the Illinois Basin are Mississippian in age. Extensive deposits of Cambrian–Devonian sediments occur in the subsurface above crystalline basement in this region, however. All available data...

### Reducing Construction Costs Through Effective Field Communication and Administration

Gabriel B. Dadi, Roy E., Jr. Sturgill, Steven Waddle & Steven Douglas Kreis
Falling Road Fund receipts have placed added strain on the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet’s (KYTC) already-underfunded highway program. Revenue declines have increased the urgency of improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the Cabinet’s operations. One method KYTC can use to realize greater cost savings is improving the administration of construction projects. Effective field communication and administration helps control construction costs, enhances quality, and minimizes delays and claims. One challenge the Cabinet will need to confront to...

### Pilot Study of Text Message Nudges as a Way to Improve Weight Loss Outcomes

Weight loss programs for women are on the rise, including both face to face and online programs. However, current research is limited on the process measures and content which produce adherence and the largest outcomes. With obesity on the rise in the United States, it is important to understand out health coaches can strengthen their programs to better support the obese population in their weight loss journey. The purpose of this pilot study was to...

### PRINCIPAL BEHAVIORS THAT FOSTER COLLECTIVE EFFICACY AMONG TEACHERS IN RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENTUCKY

Tanya Jo Jury
The purpose of this study was to examine principal behaviors, identified by teachers and principals, which foster collective efficacy among teachers. As instructional leaders of a school, principals are expected to lead their schools. Behaviors exhibited by the principal can either help or hinder the success of the school and teachers and students in that school. This study will assist principals, aspiring principals, and instructors of principal preparation programs in knowing what behaviors are necessary...

### Beyond Telling

Jane Samuel
Despite calls for increased Adoption Communication Openness (ACO) within the adoptive family, research indicates that families still struggle to accomplish the recommended elements and levels of openness. What could be holding families back from this key process? Three focus groups comprised of 17 adoptive parents of early adolescents (aged 10-14) who were age 0-2 at the time of placement were thematically coded. This inductive analysis revealed the complexity rooted in being —sometimes successfully and sometimes...

### EXAMINING ATTITUDES, PERCEPTIONS, AND OBSERVATIONS OF TOBACCO USE AND COMPLIANCE AT A SMALL PRIVATE LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGE IN KENTUCKY WITH A DESIGNATED AREA TOBACCO POLICY

Michael Dalessio
A multitude of higher education institutions have adopted comprehensive smoke- and tobacco-free policies to minimize tobacco use, increase quit attempts, and reduce exposure to secondhand smoke on campus. However, the majority of campuses across the U.S. still have non-comprehensive policies and/or designated tobacco use areas. Given the limited research in this area, the purpose of this dissertation was to assess the attitudes, perceptions, tobacco use behaviors, and actual observational compliance of students, faculty, and staff...

### HOLOCENE HYDROCLIMATIC AND VEGETATION RECONSTRUCTION IN THE SIERRA NEVADA USING POLLEN AND STABLE ISOTOPES FROM CONVICT LAKE

Morgan Black
The forested environments of the subalpine and upper montane zones of the eastern Sierra Nevada mountains (California) are biodiverse and valuable ecosystems that are sensitive to hydroclimate changes. The history of high-altitude vegetation changes in the eastern Sierra Nevada is underexplored, and this knowledge gap can be addressed using a paleolimnological approach. In this study, we use a long (~9.5 m) sediment core from Convict Lake, a glacial lake situated in the upper montane zone...

### Online Language Acquisition and Leadership in Higher Education-Governed Intensive English Programs

Brandon Decker
Research has indicated accredited, U.S. higher education-governed intensive English programs (IEPs) often struggle financially due to a scarcity of resources (namely students) because of political and global economic factors and increased competition (ICEF Monitor, 2017; IIE, 2017; Ladika, 2018; Soppelsa, 2015). However, few IEPs advertise online language acquisition (OLA) courses despite the increase in online study methods at the higher education institutes governing the programs and its use by competitors. The purpose of this study...

### Implementation and Analysis of True Lean in a Startup Company by Using PCDA Model, a Case Study in a Manufacturing Venture

Ankit Jangid
The purpose of this research is to implement and analyze the true lean transformation in a manufacturing start-up organization. Often, lean transformations are observed in developed manufacturing organizations having sophisticated production lines and numerous employees, where lean tools are utilized to reduce waste while increasing profit. However, this type of transformation is narrowly focused on quantifiable process results and falls short of the ultimate goal, establishing a true lean culture within the organization. As a...

### Integrating Cover Crops and Herbicides for Horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.] Management Prior to Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]

Austin Sherman
Horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.) is prevalent in Kentucky and can be difficult to control. Research has shown multiple weed control methods to be more sustainable than relying on chemical control alone, so the use of multiple methods for horseweed management was examined in this study. The main objective was to determine best practice(s) to reduce horseweed prior to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Treatments included: fall-planted cover crop [CC; cereal rye (Secale cereale L.)...

### An Inverse Eigenvalue Problem for the Schrödinger Equation on the Unit Ball of R3

Maryam Ali Al Ghafli
The inverse eigenvalue problem for a given operator is to determine the coefficients by using knowledge of its eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. These are determined by the behavior of the solutions on the domain boundaries. In our problem, the Schrödinger operator acting on functions defined on the unit ball of $\mathbb{R}^3$ has a radial potential taken from $L^2_{\mathbb{R}}[0,1].$ Hence the set of the eigenvalues of this problem is the union of the eigenvalues of infinitely many...

### Kentucky Traffic Collision Facts 2010 Report

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KENTUCKY’S TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2010 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, “every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate a vehicle accident of which a report must be made...shall file a report of the accident...within ten days after investigation of the accident upon forms supplied by the bureau.” The stated purpose of this requirement is to utilize data on traffic...

### Critical Path for Project Development

Steven Douglas Kreis, Bryan Gibson, Jeff Jasper, Christopher W. Van Dyke, Candice Y. Wallace, Rachel Catchings & Sarah M. McCormack
Overseeing the delivery of highway projects at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) requires the successful coordination of activities and inputs from multiple external agencies and members of the agency’s Project Development team, who have varied disciplinary backgrounds. Despite the complexity of project delivery, the Cabinet presently does not estimate hours and project milestone dates until after it has selected a design consultant. Moving forward KYTC should explore requiring consultants to develop a critical path method...

### Investigating the Use of In-Place Lateral Pull Off Tests to Determine the Compressive Strength of Structural Concrete

Charlie Sun
The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet’s current practice for determining the compressive strength of structural concrete consists of two methods. Both methods require that samples be delivered to an off-site facility for testing. Accordingly, affected parties on the project site must wait for the delivery of samples to the off-site facility, the performance of tests and analysis of test data, and the return of test results to the project site. Analysis of existing structural concrete requires core...

### SUPERINTENDENTS AND THE MICROPOLITICS OF INNOVATION IN RURAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS

Catherine Nunn Lawless
Research shows that public school districts that follow traditional means of instruction and assessment are insufficiently preparing students for success in the today’s global world. As a result, students are entering into higher education institutions and the workforce without the necessary skills to succeed in these 21st century environments. Extant literature suggest that there is a broad consensus on this perspective in public and private sectors nationally and globally. Evidence shows that some school district...

### Design and Process of 3D-Printed Parts Using Composite Theory

Jordan Garcia
3D printing is a revolutionary manufacturing method that allows the productions of engineering parts almost directly from modeling software on a computer. With 3D printing technology, future manufacturing could become vastly efficient. However, it is observed that the procedures used in 3D printing differ substantially among the printers and from those used in conventional manufacturing. In this thesis, the mechanical properties of engineering products fabricated by 3D printing were comprehensively evaluated and then compared with...

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#### Affiliations

• University of Kentucky
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• //ror.org/02k3smh20:University of Kentucky
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• Iowa State University
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• Appalachian State University
1