2,796 Works

Identification of fully human monoclonal antibodies against the adhesin domain of colonizing factor antigen I of Escherichia coli

Maja Sedic, Danielle Wisheart, Monir Ejemel, Matteo Stoppato, Serena Giuntini, Eileen Barry, William D. Thomas, Mark S. Klempner & Yan Wang
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes significant diarrheal illness in infants in the developing world and travelers to endemic countries including military personnel. Infection of the host involves bacterial colonization of the small intestinal epithelium and toxin secretion leading to watery diarrhea. CFA/I is the most common colonizing factor antigens expressed on the surface of ETEC isolates. The CFA/I adhesin, CfaE, appears to be required for ETEC binding to human intestinal cells for colonization. Human antibodies...

Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Latino Adults

Valerie J. Silfee, Stephenie C. Lemon, Vilma Lora & Milagros C. Rosal
Background: Compared to other racial/ethnic subgroups in the U.S., Latinos experience increased rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors such as hypertension, inactivity, and diabetes. Sedentary behavior has also been defined as an additional risk factor for CVD, independent of physical activity participation. However, while sedentary behavior has been associated with increased risk for CVD among primarily White samples, previous studies in Latinos have shown mixed results. Purpose: To explore the relationships between...

Reprogramming of mTOR Signaling by Perinatal Exposure to Brominated Flame Retardant

Cassandra Thorburn, Benjamin Kim, Michael Panchenko, Aser Abrha, Ahmed Khalil & Alexander Suvorov
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as mechanistic target of rapamycin, is a known metabolic master-switch. In conditions of starvation, mTOR suppresses biosynthetic programs and increases the recycling of proteins and organelles. Upon stimulation by nutrients and growth factors, however, mTOR causes activation of biosynthesis and suppression of autophagy. The mTOR-centered molecular pathway is a major pathway of growth regulation and metabolism, linked to aging and the development of cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes,...

Multiple Chronic Conditions and Psychosocial Limitations in a Contemporary Cohort of Patients Hospitalized with an Acute Coronary Syndrome

Mayra Tisminetsky, Jerry H. Gurwitz, David D. McManus, Jane S. Saczynski, Molly E. Waring, Nathaniel Erskine, Milena D. Anatchkova, David C. Parish, Darleen M. Lessard, Catarina I. Kiefe & Robert J. Goldberg
Background: As adults live longer, multiple chronic conditions have become more prevalent over the past several decades. We describe the prevalence of, and patient characteristics associated with, cardiac and non-cardiac-related multimorbidities in patients discharged from the hospital after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: We studied 2,174 patients discharged from the hospital after an ACS at 6 medical centers in Massachusetts and Georgia between April, 2011 and May, 2013. Hospital medical records yielded clinical information...

Targeted Combination Treatment for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) Using Polymeric Nanoparticle

Praveena Velpurisiva, Michael Tilton, Brandon Piel & Prakash Rai
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive cancer that originates from astrocytes and spreads to spinal cord and other parts of the brain. Increase in replication of glial cells leads to advantageous mutations in the tumor. In 2015 about 15,320 deaths were reported due to GBM. Five-year survival is less than 5% making GBM a dreadful cancer. Current treatment involves complex invasive surgery, followed by chemotherapy and radiation. There is a desperate unmet need for a...

Comparison of Diabetic Remission Rates following Roux en-Y Gastric Bypass and Longitudinal Sleeve Gastrectomy

Zachary Weitzner, Julie Flahive, Gordon Fitzgerald, Donald Czerniach, Philip Cohen, John Kelly & Richard A. Perugini
Introduction: Bariatric surgery is being increasingly investigated as treatment for Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). As Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG) surpasses Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) as the new standard in bariatric surgery, it is still unknown if its efficacy in achieving remission is comparable to RYGB. This study compared diabetic remission rates between SG and RYGB in order to identify the predictive factors for remission and the mechanisms of achieving remission. Methods: This was a retrospective...

Keynote Address: New Poverty-Related Neglected Diseases (‘The NTDs’)

Peter Hotez

Center for Digital Health (CDH)

Yunsheng Ma
As part of the mini-symposium entitled “Research on Digital Health for Designing Scalable Pervasive Healthcare Monitoring, Rehabilitation, and Home-based Healthcare Systems,” Dr. Ma discusses the UMass Center for Digital Health, for which he is Co-Director.

Analytical Testing for Marijuana

Kavita Babu
As part of the mini-symposium entitled "The Problems with Marijuana and Driving: Medical, Legal, and Public Health Perspectives," Dr. Babu describes the state of the science on measurement of marijuana in the context of driving impairment.

SPRC: The Community Partner’s Experience

Isabelle Pierre-Louis
The Science Participation Research Center (SPRC) has the overarching goal to increase the participation of under-represented communities (LGBT, ethnic/racial minorities, elderly, youth) in clinical research. A pivotal component of the Center has been partnering with a network of local community organizations in Worcester. This presentation describes the rationale, background, community engagement, and cultural competency training activities of the SPRC.

Poster Session Program: 2017 UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Poster Session Program for the 7th annual UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat, held Tuesday, May 16, 2017 at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA.

Home Matters: Adolescents Drink More Sugar Sweetened Beverages When They Are Available at Home

Christina F. Haughton, Molly E. Waring, Monica L. Wang, Milagros C. Rosal, Lori Pbert & Stephenie C. Lemon
Objective: Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has increased by 300% in the past three decades and the largest source of both added sugar and calories in the diets of US adolescents. It has been argued that the increased intake of SSBs has contributed to the rising prevalence of obesity. The availability and accessibility of foods/drinks in multiple levels of an adolescent’s environment can influence one’s choices and impact consumption. The aim of this study is...

Emotional Eating is Associated with Intake of Energy-dense Foods in Latinos

Andrea Lopez-Cepero, Christine Frisard, Stephenie C. Lemon & Milagros C. Rosal
Background: Latinos experience profound health disparities in diet-related chronic conditions. Emotional eating (EE) has been positively associated with such conditions, however, little is known about the relationship between EE and energy-dense food intake that may influence risk for developing these conditions. Objective: To examine associations between EE and energy-dense food intake in Latino men and women. Methods: Latino individuals were recruited from a community health center in Lawrence, MA. Participants completed standardized assessments. EE was...

InVitro-Q: A High-throughput Biosensor Used to Evaluate the Mechanism of Phagocytosis of Macrophages Using Different Particles

Marynawal Abdou & Abiche H. Dewilde
The method of phagocytosis of a particle can provide information on how macrophages respond to a detected particle. The response elicited varies based on the nature of the particle and in turn changes which receptor-mediated phagocytosis is initiated. We have developed a multi-well cell-based sensor that can monitor real-time biological changes in living cells, such as mass redistribution, and viscoelasticity. This system provides unique kinetic information regarding the phenotypic change in the cells post treatment....

The Utilization of Video Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

Yasir Al-Azzawai, Erik Holzwanger & David R. Cave
AIM: Our aim is to demonstrate the utilization of VCE in the patients with Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS) and evaluate the distribution of the polyps in each part of the small intestine and the percentage of patients with PJS who developed complications. METHODS: Single center, retrospective chart review study of outpatients with PJS who underwent a video capsule endoscopy study between January 2006 and January2016. RESULTS: A total of 16 patients were identified with PJS; mean...

An Innovative Nurse-Managed Transition Clinic for Adolescents and Young Adults with Spina Bifida: A Pilot Study

Mohammad Alkawaldeh, Rebecca Sherlock, Estranda Carlos & Erika Alkhawaldeh
Background. Transition from pediatric to adult care for patients with complex illness is challenging. The Spina Bifida Center at Boston Children’s Hospital (SBC) has approximately 650 patients, of which 25% (N=162) are ≥ 18 years of age. The SBC has not had a structured paradigm for successful transition. A first transition clinic with our pediatric and adult care urology partners was initiated in August 2016. Methods. A 20 question (TRAQ: Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire) paper...

Trends in Cause of Death among Puerto Rican and United States Multiple Myeloma Patients

Maira Castaneda-Avila, K. J. Ortiz-Ortiz, C. R. Torres-Cintrón & Mara M. Epstein
Background/Objective: Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable, yet treatable, cancer of plasma cells. Due to recent improvements in treatment, people diagnosed with MM have been living longer, and other co-morbid conditions may be of increasing importance. This study examines temporal trends in specific causes of death among MM patients in Puerto Rico (PR) and United States (US). Methods: We analyzed primary cause of death among all incident MM cancer cases recorded in the Puerto Rico...

The Effects of Early Adoption of Academic Electronic Health Records System (EHRS) on Patient Outcome in Nursing

Joohyun Chung, Donghui Yan & Gray Davis
The wide adoption of EHR systems has led the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to emphasize the use of informatics as a core competency required of all health care professions. However, the nursing profession has been slow to incorporate information technology into formal nurse education and practice. In the massive transformation from disconnected, inefficient, paper-based care delivery to interconnected system driven by EHRs (Electronic Health Records system), little is known about the effect of the early...

Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Change on Risk of Recurrence in Patients Treated for Endometrial Adenocarcinoma

Geneva A. DeGregorio, Katherine Leung & Leslie S. Bradford
Background: Obesity is a well-documented risk factor for EAC, but the relationship between obesity and disease recurrence is controversial. Additionally, body weight is an inherently dynamic variable and no studies have examined the relationship between interval weight change and risk of EAC recurrence. Objectives: To identify if there is a relationship between body mass index (BMI) or interval weight change and the risk of disease recurrence among women treated for EAC. Methods: We conducted a...

Testing a Novel Manual Communication System for Mechanically Ventilated ICU Patients

Miriam A. Goldberg, Leigh R. Hochberg, Dawn Carpenter, Johnny L. Isenberger, Stephen O. Heard & J. Matthias Walz
Introduction: Available communication methods for intubated patients in the ICU are insufficient to meet patient needs. Both ICU patients and their care providers report broadly unsuccessful communication attempts, resulting in less effective medical care and undue stress1,2. Use of existing methods - including letter boards, writing, and mouthing words - for mechanically ventilated (MV) patients has led to a consensus that new methods are required3. We report on the testing of a new system designed...

Evolution of the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Muscle Gene Therapy: Translation from Clinical Trial to Benchtop and Back Again

Alisha M. Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Jeff Chulay, Dave Knop, Christian Mueller & Terence R. Flotte
Alpha-one antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a genetic disease affecting the lungs due to inadequate anti-protease activity in the pulmonary interstitium. On-going human trials use intra-muscular delivery of adeno-associated virus (rAAV1), allowing expressing myofibers to secrete normal (M)AAT protein. In the Phase IIa trial, patients in the highest dose cohort (6x1012vg/kg) were given 100 intra-muscular (IM) injections of undiluted vector, with serum AAT levels still substantially below target levels. Previous work has shown that delivering rAAV...

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Community Health Workers Using Patient Stories to Support Hypertension Management: Preliminary Results

J. Lee Hargraves, Debra Bonollo, Warren J. Ferguson & Elizabeth Aaker Orvek
Background: Uncontrolled hypertension is a significant public health problem in the U.S. with about one half of people able to keep blood pressure under control. Furthermore, the social and economic costs of poor hypertension control are staggering. Community Health Worker (CHW) interventions are a low-cost, culturally tailored approach to improve chronic disease outcomes. Methods: This randomized trial conducted at two Community Health Centers (CHCs) in Massachusetts assessed the effect of CHWs assisting patients with hypertension....

Emergency Department Super-utilizer Program Involvement: Pilot Data and Methods Challenges

Colette Houssan, Arlene S. Ash, Rachel Davis-Martin, Laurel Banach, Eric W. Dickson & Edwin D. Boudreaux
Super-utilizers are patients who use extreme amounts of medical services, often due to comorbid medical, social, and mental health issues. The MyLink Evaluation Project (MEP) studies MyLink, a program that connects super-utilizers with community support workers (CSWs) to improve the patient experience and reduce costs. The MEP-eligible population is ≥18 years old with at least 5 Emergency Department (ED) visits within 12 months and no other exclusions (e.g., language barriers, living out-of-region). During MEP’s pilot,...

Selective Environmentally Benign Synthesis of Isotope Labeled Compounds: Introduction of Deuterium into Compounds of Medicinal Relevance

Anne Kokel, Dora Kadish & Bela Torok
Deuterium (2H) is a less abundant isotope of hydrogen that possesses an additional neutron resulting in significant differences in the properties of a 1H-containing-molecule compared to its 2H homologues. Deuterium labeled organic compounds are valuable in medicinal chemistry as they offer widespread applications. For instance, in imaging deuteratium labeling can serve as biological tracers, thus, deuterated drugs can provide better understanding of the metabolic pathways; they can also help localize the metabolites of the drug...

Combination Photodynamic Therapy and Chemotherapy for Temozolomide-Resistant Glioblastoma

Janel Kydd, Rahul Jadia & Prakash Rai
Polymer based nanoparticles (NPs) are useful vehicles for drug therapy in treating glioblastoma because of their ideal characteristics such as small size, to cross the blood-brain barrier, and bind to overexpressed transferrin receptors via peptide conjugation and surface modification of NPs. The use of a photosensitizer drug such as verteporfin, or BPD, in combination with a repurposed drug, Cediranib (CED), prepared as a nanoparticle therapy will provide the medical field with new research on the...

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