174 Works

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series

Steven Ruggles, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS USA contains harmonized census and American Community Survey (ACS) data from 1790 to the present. For the period 1850 to 1940, IPUMS includes 100% of individuals in the decennial censuses. For the period 1950 to 2010, we have public use samples of decennial censuses. For the period since 2000, IPUMS provides annual ACS public use samples. The available information in the censuses and ACS varies by year, but generally includes basic housing data (type...

North Atlantic Population Project: Complete Count Microdata

The North Atlantic Population Project (NAPP) provides integrated census data describing the population of the North Atlantic world in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. NAPP includes complete count censuses and samples of census data of Canada, Great Britain, Iceland, Mecklenburg-Schwerin (in Germany), Norway, Sweden, and the United States. To facilitate comparative and cross temporal analysis, NAPP assigns uniform codes across all censuses and brings relevant documentation into a coherent form. NAPP is a collaborative...

National Historical Geographic Information System

The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) provides free online access to summary statistics and GIS boundary files for U.S. censuses and other nationwide surveys from 1790 through the present. Boundary files include: counties and states since 1790, census tracts since 1910, metropolitan areas since 1950, places and county subdivisions since 1980, all standard census reporting areas since 1990, and SABINS school attendance areas for 2009-12. Summary tables from decennial censuses and the American Community...

Terra Populus: Integrated Data on Population and Environment

TerraPop provides data on human population characteristics, land use, land cover, climate and other environmental characteristics. The data provide global coverage at scales appropriate for sub-national analysis. TerraPop integrates microdata describing individuals and households, aggregate data describing population and land use characteristics of places, and raster data describing environmental conditions. Users can construct extracts incorporating any data in the collection, regardless of its storage format, and obtain integrated extracts in microdata, area-level, or raster format,...

American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder

Sandra L. Hofferth, Sarah M. Flood & Matthew Sobek
The American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder (ATUS-X) is a part of IPUMS Time Use, dedicated to making time use data easier for researchers to use. The American Time Use Survey (ATUS) ATUS is an ongoing annual time diary study, started in 2003, that is funded by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and fielded by the U.S. Census Bureau. It provides detailed information about the activities in which respondents engage together with...

IPUMS-Demographic and Health Surveys: Version 4

Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Miriam King & Matthew Sobek
The IPUMS-DHS project harmonizes Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data and documentation for Africa, the Middle East and Asia to facilitate comparative research across time and countries. The DHS are the main source of information on health in low- and middle-income countries. IPUMS-DHS is designed to facilitate analysis of DHS data across time and space. IPUMS-DHS adds value to the original DHS samples in the following ways: variables are coded consistently across countries and over...

IPUMS Health Surveys: National Health Interview Survey, Version 6.2

Lynn A. Blewett, Julia A. Rivera Drew, Risa Griffin, Miriam L. King & Kari C.W. Williams
The IPUMS NHIS is a harmonized set of data for over 50 years (1963-present) of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is the principal source of information on the health of the U.S. population, covering such topics as general health status, the distribution of acute and chronic illness, functional limitations, access to and use of medical services, insurance coverage, and health behaviors (such as exercise, diet, and tobacco and alcohol consumption). On average,...

American Heritage Time Use Study Extract Builder: Version 1.1

Kimberly Fisher, Jonathan Gershuny, Sarah M. Flood, Joan Garcia Roman & Sandra L. Hofferth
AHTUS-X is a part of IPUMS Time Use, dedicated to making time use data easier for researchers to use. American Heritage Time Use Study (AHTUS) is a database of national time-diary samples collected over six decades, from 1965 to the present. Data includes harmonized variables describing background, activity, location, mode of transport and who else was present. AHTUS-X is a collaboration between the Maryland Population Research Center, the Centre for Time Use Research (CTUR) at...

IPUMS: National Youth Tobacco Survey: Version 1.0

Matthew J. Sobek & Kari C.W. Williams
IPUMS NYTS contains harmonized National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) data from 1999-2014. The NYTS is a cross-sectional national survey of youth in grades 6-12. The NYTS gathers nationally representative data about youth's tobacco-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco influence; these measures support research to design, implement, and evaluate comprehensive tobacco prevention and control programs. On average, the survey covers over 20,000 persons each year it is conducted. The IPUMS harmonized NYTS...

IPUMS Health Surveys: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey: Version 1.0

Lynn A. Blewett, Julia A. Rivera Drew, Risa Griffin, Kari C.W. Williams & Daniel Backman
IPUMS MEPS is an NICHD-funded project designed to make Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component (MEPS-HC) data easier for researchers to use. MEPS-HC is an ongoing panel survey, started in 1996, that is produced by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). IPUMS MEPS Version 1.0 contains data and documentation for more than 1,000 annual person-level variables from the 1996-2014 full-year consolidated files. These variables are consistently named and coded over time within MEPS,...

IPUMS-PMA: Version 1.0

Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Devon Kristiansen & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS-PMA is a harmonized data collection of Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020, a high-frequency survey for the measurement of progress toward Family Planning 2020 goals. It consists of individual-level microdata collected through household and female surveys about family planning behaviors, water, sanitation, and health in 10 countries of Africa and Asia.

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, International: Version 7.0

IPUMS-International is an effort to inventory, preserve, harmonize, and disseminate census microdata from around the world. The project has collected the world's largest archive of publicly available census samples. The data are coded and documented consistently across countries and over time to facilitate comparative research. IPUMS-International makes these data available to qualified researchers free of charge through a web dissemination system. Historical census data from Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Germany, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and...

Inter-Cohort Trends in Age-Specific Health Inequalities: A Test of the Theory of Fundamental Causes

John Robert Warren & Elaine M. Hernandez
Link and Phelan’s (1995; 1996) “Fundamental Causes” theory posits that social and economic inequalities in morbidity and mortality have persisted over historical time --- and will continue to persist --- because people with access to more social and economic resources are always better able to avoid health risks (even if the nature of those risks change over time). Despite the prominence of this theory and its inherent challenge to mainstream epidemiological, public health, and social...

Romantic Relationships from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

Ann Meier & Gina Allen
Theories on romantic relationship development posit a progression of involvement and intensity with age, relationship duration, and experience in romantic relationships. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests these propositions by considering relationship type and patterns of relationships over the course of adolescence and their influence on relationship formation in young adulthood. Findings confirm that relationships become more exclusive, dyadic, of longer duration, and more emotionally and sexually intimate over the...

The Effect of Child Work on Schooling: Evidence from Egypt

Ragui Assaad, Deborah Levison & Nadia Zibani
The negative correlation between children’s work and schooling is well-documented. However, the causal link between child labor and school attainment has not been well established in the literature. We show that work, broadly defined, substantially reduces schooling for both boys and girls. We present evidence that lower rates of school attendance for Egyptian girls are caused by a substantial burden of household work. While market work is a serious impediment to schooling for boys, a...

Living Arrangements of the Aged in Comparative Historical Perspective

Steven Ruggles
This paper exploits a vast collection of newly-available census data from 92 censuses of 29 countries around the world between 1850 and 2006. My goal is to begin to systematically assess cross-temporal and cross-national variation in the living arrangements of the aged. The family patterns of the aged are relevant to the European exceptionalism hypothesis. All things being equal, one would expect that populations with weak nuclear family systems and neolocal marriage would have a...

Children's Economic Well-Being During the Great Recession

Sheela Kennedy, Catherine A. Fitch & Matt A. Nelson
We use data from the Current Population Survey on parental employment, family poverty, and food security to examine the impact of the recession on child well-being during the 2007-2009 recession. We estimate changes in child poverty and food insecurity by family structure, parental education, and race/ethnicity. Our results, using data for the first two years of the recession, show that the impact of the recession was widespread. Changes in food security were larger than changes...

Making Full Use of the Longitudinal Design of the Current Population Survey: Methods for Linking Records across 16 Months

Julia A. Rivera Drew, Sarah Flood & John Robert Warren
Data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) are rarely analyzed in a way that takes advantage of the CPS’s longitudinal design. This is mainly because of the technical difficulties associated with linking CPS files across months. In this paper, we describe the method we are using to create unique identifiers for all CPS person and household records from 1979 onward. These identifiers—soon to be available along with CPS basic and supplemental data as part of...

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Nonwage Compensation

Joseph A. Ritter
Previous research has found that, after controlling for test scores, measured black-white wage gaps are small but unemployment gaps remain large. This paper complements this previous research by examining the incidence of employer-provided benefits from the same premarket perspective. However, marriage rates differ substantially by race, and the possibility of health-insurance coverage through a spouse’s employer therefore distorts how the distribution of benefits available in the market to an individual is expressed in the distribution...

Within-Occupation and Industry Sex, Race, and Educational Differences in Exposures to Workplace Hazards

Julia A. Rivera Drew & Carrie Henning-Smith
Background Potentially harmful workplace conditions have been linked to occupationally-related illness and injury, costing billions of dollars in health care and lost wages. This study compares workers in the same jobs to see whether demographic differences in exposures persist. Methods Data were from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models controlling for job assessed differences in three exposures: 1) skin contact with chemicals, 2) vapors, gas, dust, and fumes, and...

Water, Walls and Bicycles: Wealth Index Composition Using Census Microdata

Rodrigo Lovaton Davila, Aine Seitz McCarthy, Dorothy Gondwe, Phatta Kirdruang & Uttam Sharma
This research aims to develop a valid and consistent measure for socioeconomic status at the household level using census microdata from developing countries available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series - International (IPUMS-I), the world's largest census database. We use principal components analysis to compute a wealth index based on asset ownership, utilities, and dwelling characteristics. The validation strategies include comparing our proposed index with the widely used Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) wealth...

Gender Inequality in the Life Cycle: The Effect of Parenthood on the Division of Unpaid Work

Marc Ajenjo Cosp & Joan García Román
The aim of this paper is to test whether younger generations are more egalitarian or whether their more gender-balanced behaviour is due to factors associated with the life cycle. Data used in the analysis are from the two editions of the Spanish Time Use Surveys carried out in 2002-2003 and 2009-2010. The unit of analysis is the couple, and we measure the degree of equality within the couple using differences between the spouses in the...

Trends in Union Instability in the United States, 1980s-2010s

Steven Ruggles & Sheela Kennedy
We use data from the 1995, 2002, 2006-10, 2011-13 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to examine trends in cohabitation in the United States. By the 2000s, 45% of first unions dissolved within 5 years, a dramatic increased over previous decades. The percent of first marriages dissolving within 5 years remained unchanged about 20%, compared to just over half of cohabiting unions. Educational differences in marital dissolution increased through the 1990s, before...

Inequality of Opportunity in Adult Health in Colombia

Johanna Fajardo-Gonzalez
This paper measures inequality of opportunity in adult health in Colombia using the 2010 Living Standards and Social Mobility Survey, a rich dataset that provides unique information about individual childhood circumstances in that country. Dissimilarity and Gini-opportunity indexes are calculated to provide different measures of inequality of opportunity using a self-reported variable for health status. The Shapley-value decomposition is then used to estimate the contribution of circumstances such as parental education and household socioeconomic status...

Evaluating the Accuracy of Linked U. S. Census Data: A Household Linking Approach

Ronald Goeken, Yu Na Lee, Tom Lynch & Diana Magnuson
Despite the proliferation of published studies using linked decennial census records there has been little empirical work on the accuracy of the linked data. The primary reason, of course, is that you can never definitively state that two records taken from two distinct censuses represent the same person. Potential links are then classified as true or false according to rules or machine learning procedures. Estimating linkage rates is a straightforward exercise, but error rates can...

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