165 Works

U.S. Racial Inequality May Be as Deadly as COVID-19

Elizabeth Wrigley-Field
The Covid-19 pandemic is causing a catastrophic increase in U.S. mortality. How does the scale of this pandemic compare to another U.S. catastrophe: racial inequality? Using demographic models, I estimate how many excess white deaths would raise U.S. white mortality to the bestever (lowest) U.S. Black level under alternative, plausible assumptions about the age patterning of excess mortality in 2020. I find that nearly 400,000 excess white deaths would be needed to equal the best...

Unequally Insecure: Rising Black/White Disparities in Job Displacement, 1981-2017

Social scientists have documented vast racial disparities in labor market outcomes such as hiring and firing decisions, compensation, and opportunities for occupational advancement. Yet little is known about the racial patterning of job displacement (permanent involuntary layoffs), a remarkably common labor market outcome. Using data from the Displaced Worker Survey, covering nearly four decades of displacements, 1981-2017, we provide the first systematic analysis of Black/white displacement disparities since the 1990s. We find that Black workers...

American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder

Sandra L. Hofferth, Sarah M. Flood & Matthew Sobek
The American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder (ATUS-X) is a part of IPUMS Time Use, dedicated to making time use data easier for researchers to use. The American Time Use Survey (ATUS) ATUS is an ongoing annual time diary study, started in 2003, that is funded by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and fielded by the U.S. Census Bureau. It provides detailed information about the activities in which respondents engage together with...

Terra Populus: Integrated Data on Population and Environment

TerraPop provides data on human population characteristics, land use, land cover, climate and other environmental characteristics. The data provide global coverage at scales appropriate for sub-national analysis. TerraPop integrates microdata describing individuals and households, aggregate data describing population and land use characteristics of places, and raster data describing environmental conditions. Users can construct extracts incorporating any data in the collection, regardless of its storage format, and obtain integrated extracts in microdata, area-level, or raster format,...

North Atlantic Population Project: Complete Count Microdata

The North Atlantic Population Project (NAPP) provides integrated census data describing the population of the North Atlantic world in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. NAPP includes complete count censuses and samples of census data of Canada, Great Britain, Iceland, Mecklenburg-Schwerin (in Germany), Norway, Sweden, and the United States. To facilitate comparative and cross temporal analysis, NAPP assigns uniform codes across all censuses and brings relevant documentation into a coherent form. NAPP is a collaborative...

National Historical Geographic Information System

The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) provides free online access to summary statistics and GIS boundary files for U.S. censuses and other nationwide surveys from 1790 through the present. Boundary files include: counties and states since 1790, census tracts since 1910, metropolitan areas since 1950, places and county subdivisions since 1980, all standard census reporting areas since 1990, and SABINS school attendance areas for 2009-12. Summary tables from decennial censuses and the American Community...

IPUMS Health Surveys: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey: Version 1.0

Lynn A. Blewett, Julia A. Rivera Drew, Risa Griffin, Kari C.W. Williams & Daniel Backman
IPUMS MEPS is an NICHD-funded project designed to make Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component (MEPS-HC) data easier for researchers to use. MEPS-HC is an ongoing panel survey, started in 1996, that is produced by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). IPUMS MEPS Version 1.0 contains data and documentation for more than 1,000 annual person-level variables from the 1996-2014 full-year consolidated files. These variables are consistently named and coded over time within MEPS,...

Opening the Front Door: Household Composition as a Link Between Asian American Identities and Histories

Ummul-Kiram Kathawalla & Carolyn A. Liebler

Unequally Insecure: Rising Black/White Disparities in Job Displacement, 1981-2017

Elizabeth Wrigley-Field & Nathan Seltzer
Social scientists have documented vast racial disparities in labor market outcomes such as hiring and firing decisions, compensation, and opportunities for occupational advancement. Yet little is known about the racial patterning of job displacement (permanent involuntary layoffs), a remarkably common labor market outcome. Using data from the Displaced Worker Survey, covering nearly four decades of displacements, 1981-2017, we provide the first systematic analysis of Black/white displacement disparities. We find that Black workers were nearly always...

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, International: Version 7.0

IPUMS-International is an effort to inventory, preserve, harmonize, and disseminate census microdata from around the world. The project has collected the world's largest archive of publicly available census samples. The data are coded and documented consistently across countries and over time to facilitate comparative research. IPUMS-International makes these data available to qualified researchers free of charge through a web dissemination system. Historical census data from Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Germany, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and...

IPUMS-PMA: Version 1.0

Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Devon Kristiansen & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS-PMA is a harmonized data collection of Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020, a high-frequency survey for the measurement of progress toward Family Planning 2020 goals. It consists of individual-level microdata collected through household and female surveys about family planning behaviors, water, sanitation, and health in 10 countries of Africa and Asia.

Evaluating the Accuracy of Linked U. S. Census Data: A Household Linking Approach

Ronald Goeken, Yu Na Lee, Tom Lynch & Diana Magnuson
Despite the proliferation of published studies using linked decennial census records there has been little empirical work on the accuracy of the linked data. The primary reason, of course, is that you can never definitively state that two records taken from two distinct censuses represent the same person. Potential links are then classified as true or false according to rules or machine learning procedures. Estimating linkage rates is a straightforward exercise, but error rates can...

Inequality of Opportunity in Adult Health in Colombia

Johanna Fajardo-Gonzalez
This paper measures inequality of opportunity in adult health in Colombia using the 2010 Living Standards and Social Mobility Survey, a rich dataset that provides unique information about individual childhood circumstances in that country. Dissimilarity and Gini-opportunity indexes are calculated to provide different measures of inequality of opportunity using a self-reported variable for health status. The Shapley-value decomposition is then used to estimate the contribution of circumstances such as parental education and household socioeconomic status...

A New Strategy for Linking Historical Censuses: A Case Study for the IPUMS Multigenerational Longitudinal Panel

Jonas Helgertz, Joseph R. Price, Jacob Wellington, Kelly Thompson, Steven Ruggles & Catherine R. Fitch
This paper presents a new probabilistic method of record linkage, developed using the U.S. full count censuses of 1900 and 1910 but applicable to a range of different sources of historical records. The method was designed to exploit a more comprehensive set of individual and contextual characteristics present in historical census data, aiming to obtain a machine learning algorithm that better distinguishes between multiple potential matches. Our results demonstrate that the method achieves a match...

Immigration, Suburbia, and the Politics of Population in US Metropolitan Areas

Kyle Walker
Suburbs in the United States, traditionally represented as a homogenous domain of white, middle-class residents, are in the midst of unprecedented demographic change due to immigration. Suburban immigrant populations now outnumber and are growing faster than their counterparts in central cities. Many suburbs across the country have responded unfavorably to these demographic changes, however, pushing in some cases for the implementation of ordinances and other local policies specifically designed to exclude undocumented immigrants from their...

Harmonizing the 2010 and 2002 Census Occupation Coding Schemes

Kari C.W. Williams & Sarah M. Flood
The study of occupations has a long history in the social sciences. The United States Census Bureau creates and updates occupation codes based on the Standard Occupation Classification System to systematically identify similar jobs and classify them into occupations. Periodic updates to occupation codes are necessary for documenting emerging and disappearing occupations and appropriately reflecting the labor market. While these updates are important for capturing the changing jobs that are performed in the United States,...


IPUMS CPS harmonizes microdata from the monthly U.S. labor force survey, the Current Population Survey (CPS), covering the period 1962 to the present. Data include demographic information, rich employment data, program participation and supplemental data on topics such as fertility, tobacco use, volunteer activities, voter registration, computer and internet use, food security, and more. The CPS is a monthly U.S. household survey conducted jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics....

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series

Steven Ruggles, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS USA contains harmonized census and American Community Survey (ACS) data from 1790 to the present. For the period 1850 to 1940, IPUMS includes 100% of individuals in the decennial censuses. For the period 1950 to 2010, we have public use samples of decennial censuses. For the period since 2000, IPUMS provides annual ACS public use samples. The available information in the censuses and ACS varies by year, but generally includes basic housing data (type...

IPUMS Health Surveys: National Health Interview Survey, Version 6.2

Lynn A. Blewett, Julia A. Rivera Drew, Risa Griffin, Miriam L. King & Kari C.W. Williams
The IPUMS NHIS is a harmonized set of data for over 50 years (1963-present) of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is the principal source of information on the health of the U.S. population, covering such topics as general health status, the distribution of acute and chronic illness, functional limitations, access to and use of medical services, insurance coverage, and health behaviors (such as exercise, diet, and tobacco and alcohol consumption). On average,...

IPUMS-Demographic and Health Surveys: Version 4

Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Miriam King & Matthew Sobek
The IPUMS-DHS project harmonizes Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data and documentation for Africa, the Middle East and Asia to facilitate comparative research across time and countries. The DHS are the main source of information on health in low- and middle-income countries. IPUMS-DHS is designed to facilitate analysis of DHS data across time and space. IPUMS-DHS adds value to the original DHS samples in the following ways: variables are coded consistently across countries and over...

Within-Occupation and Industry Sex, Race, and Educational Differences in Exposures to Workplace Hazards

Julia A. Rivera Drew & Carrie Henning-Smith
Background Potentially harmful workplace conditions have been linked to occupationally-related illness and injury, costing billions of dollars in health care and lost wages. This study compares workers in the same jobs to see whether demographic differences in exposures persist. Methods Data were from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models controlling for job assessed differences in three exposures: 1) skin contact with chemicals, 2) vapors, gas, dust, and fumes, and...

Inter-Cohort Trends in Age-Specific Health Inequalities: A Test of the Theory of Fundamental Causes

John Robert Warren & Elaine M. Hernandez
Link and Phelan’s (1995; 1996) “Fundamental Causes” theory posits that social and economic inequalities in morbidity and mortality have persisted over historical time --- and will continue to persist --- because people with access to more social and economic resources are always better able to avoid health risks (even if the nature of those risks change over time). Despite the prominence of this theory and its inherent challenge to mainstream epidemiological, public health, and social...

Making Full Use of the Longitudinal Design of the Current Population Survey: Methods for Linking Records across 16 Months

Julia A. Rivera Drew, Sarah Flood & John Robert Warren
Data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) are rarely analyzed in a way that takes advantage of the CPS’s longitudinal design. This is mainly because of the technical difficulties associated with linking CPS files across months. In this paper, we describe the method we are using to create unique identifiers for all CPS person and household records from 1979 onward. These identifiers—soon to be available along with CPS basic and supplemental data as part of...

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Nonwage Compensation

Joseph A. Ritter
Previous research has found that, after controlling for test scores, measured black-white wage gaps are small but unemployment gaps remain large. This paper complements this previous research by examining the incidence of employer-provided benefits from the same premarket perspective. However, marriage rates differ substantially by race, and the possibility of health-insurance coverage through a spouse’s employer therefore distorts how the distribution of benefits available in the market to an individual is expressed in the distribution...

Children's Economic Well-Being During the Great Recession

Sheela Kennedy, Catherine A. Fitch & Matt A. Nelson
We use data from the Current Population Survey on parental employment, family poverty, and food security to examine the impact of the recession on child well-being during the 2007-2009 recession. We estimate changes in child poverty and food insecurity by family structure, parental education, and race/ethnicity. Our results, using data for the first two years of the recession, show that the impact of the recession was widespread. Changes in food security were larger than changes...

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