170 Works

Multinational Time Use Study Extract System: Version 1.2

Kimberly Fisher, Jonathan Gershuny, Sarah M. Flood, Joan Garcia Roman & Sandra L. Hofferth
MTUS-X is a part of IPUMS Time Use, dedicated to making time use data easier for researchers to use. The Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) is a database of time-diary samples collected over six decades, from 1965 to the present. Data includes harmonized variables describing background, activity, location, mode of transport and who else was present. MTUS-X is a collaboration between the Maryland Population Research Center, the Centre for Time Use Research (CTUR) at the...

American Heritage Time Use Study Extract Builder: Version 1.2

Kimberly Fisher, Jonathan Gershuny, Sarah M. Flood, Joan Garcia Roman & Sandra L. Hofferth
AHTUS-X is a part of IPUMS Time Use, dedicated to making time use data easier for researchers to use. American Heritage Time Use Study (AHTUS) is a database of national time-diary samples collected over six decades, from 1965 to the present. Data includes harmonized variables describing background, activity, location, mode of transport and who else was present. AHTUS-X is a collaboration between the Maryland Population Research Center, the Centre for Time Use Research (CTUR) at...

National Historical Geographic Information System: Version 13.0

Steven Manson, Jonathan Schroeder, David Van Riper & Steven Ruggles
The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) provides free online access to summary statistics and GIS boundary files for U.S. censuses and other nationwide surveys from 1790 through the present. GIS files include: counties and states since 1790, census tracts since 1910, metropolitan areas since 1950, place and county subdivision boundaries since 1980, place points since 1900, all standard census reporting areas since 1990, and SABINS school attendance areas for 2009-12. Summary tables from decennial...

IPUMS Health Surveys: National Health Interview Survey, Version 6.3

Lynn A. Blewett, Julia A. Rivera Drew, Risa Griffin, Miriam L. King & Kari C.W. Williams
The IPUMS NHIS is a harmonized set of data for over 50 years (1963-present) of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is the principal source of information on the health of the U.S. population, covering such topics as general health status, the distribution of acute and chronic illness, functional limitations, access to and use of medical services, insurance coverage, and health behaviors (such as exercise, diet, and tobacco and alcohol consumption). On average,...

IPUMS Health Surveys

IPUMS Health Surveys provide free individual-level survey data for research purposes from two leading sources of self-reported health and health care access information. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) provides harmonized annual microdata from the 1960s to the present. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) provides harmonized microdata from the longitudinal survey of U.S. health care expenditures and utilization, covering the period 1996 to the present.

High School Exit Examinations and State-Level Completion and GED Rates, 1973-2000

John Robert Warren, Krista N. Jenkins & Rachael B. Kulick
We investigate the extent to which high school exit examinations are associated with state-level high school completion rates in the United States. To do so, we estimate a series of state and year fixed effects models using a new measure of state-level high school completion rates and archival information about states’ high school exit examinations between 1973 and 2000. We find that high school exit examinations --- particularly more difficult examinations that have recently been...

Using Cyber-Resources to Build Databases for Social Science Research

Matthew Sobek, Monty Hindman & Steven Ruggles
The Integrated Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) is the premiere infrastructure project supported through the NSF Human and Social Dynamics Priority Area. Over the next four years, the IPUMS-International project will release data and metadata from approximately 150 censuses of 45 countries, totaling about a half-billion records and some 20,000 variables. Because of the unprecedented scale of this work, we have had to develop innovative cyber infrastructure for both data processing and dissemination. The source data...

The Development of Family Interrelationship Variables for International Census Data

Matthew Sobek & Sheela Kennedy
Population microdata are typically organized into households, but household relationships are often ambiguous for persons outside the nuclear family. To facilitate comparative research on families and households, the Minnesota Population Center has developed consistent "pointer" variables identifying each person's mother, father and spouse for the International Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS-International), a freely available database of 279 million person records from 44 countries. This paper documents the methodology used to identify the most likely...

Employment for Youth: A Growing Challenge for the Global Community

Ragui Assaad & Deborah Levison
Social and economic challenges facing young people today must be understood in terms of the complex interaction between unique demographic trends and specific economic contexts. There has been an unprecedented growth in the number of young people in the Global South in the past two decades, and these youth face situations where the forces of economic globalization interact with historically determined national and regional economic structures and policies. Although we will argue that unemployment is...

Methodological Challenges in Studying the Impact of Domestic Violence on Children's Human Capital: An Application to Colombia

Ragui Assaad, Greta Friedemann-Sanchez & Deborah Levison
This paper examines the effects of intimate-partner violence (IPV) against the mother on the educational outcomes of her children ages 6-14. We explore the potential non-random selection of children into situations where they are exposed to IPV using non-parametric matching methods and parametric instrumental variables methods. The analyses of Colombia’s 2005 DHS (N= 21,827) indicate that mother’s exposure to IPV reduces children’s school attendance by 1.2 to 2.7 percentage points, depending on methodology, substantial when...

Re-Thinking the Two-Body Problem: The Segregation of Women into Geographically-Dispersed Occupation

Alan Benson
Research on the family cites the tendency for couples to relocate for husbands’ careers as evidence against the gender-neutrality of household economic decisions. I test whether the prioritization of husbands’ careers in mobility decisions is endogenous to men’s and women’s occupations. Consistent with this hypothesis, I find the tendency for households to relocate for husbands’ careers is better-explained by the segregation of women into geographically-dispersed occupations in advance of marriage rather than by the direct...

Is Timing Everything? Parental Unemployment and Children's Educational Attainment

Caren Arbeit
Drawing from research on parental unemployment, sibling differences and life course theories, I consider whether (and how) the timing of a parent’s job loss moderates the impact of the event on children’s educational attainment in adulthood. Life course and child development theories lead to a hypothesis that the timing of family events in each child’s life may lead to long-term differences in educational attainment. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I examine the educational...

The Sensitivity of the Intrinsic Estimator to Coding Schemes: A Comment on Yang, Schulhofer-Wohl, Fu, and Land

Liying Luo, James Hodges, Christopher Winship & Daniel Powers
The Intrinsic Estimator (IE) has been proposed to address the age-period-cohort problem and is believed by many to yield robust and reliable estimates. We, however, show that IE estimates are highly sensitive to one’s choice of coding scheme or model parameterization. We reanalyze data from published articles to demonstrate that estimation results using one coding scheme (e.g., the zero-to-sum coding) can be dramatically different from those obtained using a different coding scheme (e.g., reference group...

Is School the Best Route to Skills? Returns to Vocational School and Vocational Skills in Egypt

Caroline Krafft
Formal vocational schooling is expected by many to be the best route to job skills, to make young Egyptians highly employable and to generate substantial returns. This paper compares the returns to formal vocational secondary education and the returns to vocational skills acquired through other routes, such as apprenticeships, in Egypt. By using a unique panel data set that allows for a comparison of siblings, this paper estimates the impact of education and skills on...

Trends in Spouses' Shared Time in the United States, 1965-2012

Katie Genadek, Sarah M. Flood & Joan Garcia Roman
Despite major demographic changes over the past fifty years and strong evidence that time spent with a spouse is important for marriages, we know very little about how time with a spouse has changed, or not changed, in the United States. Using time use survey data from 1965-2012, we examine trends in couples’ shared time in the United States during a period of major changes in American marriages and families. We find that couples without...

Harmonized census geography and spatio-temporal analysis: Gender equality and empowerment of women in Africa

Sula Sarkar, Lara Cleveland, Majory Silisyene & Matthew Sobek
Changes in administrative boundaries pose major challenges for spatio-temporal population research. Researchers interested in change over time need to hold space constant to study contextual or spatial effects on behaviors and outcomes. Boundary changes risk polluting their analyses with artifacts that obscure real changes that may have occurred. This paper describes the method by which spatially consistent geographic units have been constructed in the IPUMS-International census data collection for several countries over a fifty year...

Using the Annual Social and Economic Supplement with Current Population Survey Panels

Sarah Flood & José Pacas
The Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) is the most widely used type of Current Population Survey (CPS) data because of its rich information on employment, unions, health insurance and taxes. Researchers typically use these data as repeated cross sections despite the longitudinal component of the CPS, which many researchers are unaware of and very few leverage. The IPUMS-CPS (https://cps.ipums.org) project at the University of Minnesota is undergoing a large-scale effort to unlock the enormous...

Correlates and Consequences of American War Casualties in World War I

Evan Roberts & Alexandra Burda
Outside of international relations much of the scholarship on World War I has come from historians rather than social scientists. Thus, there has been little attention paid to extending our knowledge of the basic demographic facts of American involvement in World War I, and analysis of the social impact of the war on veterans and their communities. After knowing how many Americans died, demographers might ask how did they die, and how did mortality rates...

Implications of Differential Privacy for Census Bureau Data Dissemination

The Census Bureau has announced a new set of standards and methods for disclosure control in public use data products. The new approach, known as differential privacy, represents a radical departure from current practice. In its pure form, differential privacy techniques may make the release of useful microdata impossible and severely limit the utility of tabular small-area data. Adoption of differential privacy will have far-reaching consequences for research. It is possible—even likely—that scientists, planners, and...

Building Research Infrastructure for Harmonized International Census Microdata

Matthew Sobek & Lara Cleveland
IPUMS International harmonizes and disseminates census microdata collected over multiple decades by roughly 100 countries. There is little commonality in the source material over time within countries and no consistency at all across countries. To manage this heterogeneity, IPUMS has developed an extensive data infrastructure driven by metadata. Researchers manage correspondence tables to assign disparate input codes into a common global classification scheme for each categorical variable. These selfdocumenting tables govern the data harmonization software...

Extending Current Population Survey Linkages: Obstacles and Solutions for Linking Monthly Data from 1976 to 1988

Sarah Flood, Renae Rodgers, Jose Pacas, Devon Kristiansen & Ben Klaas
The Current Population Survey (CPS) has been the nation’s primary source of information about employment and unemployment for decades. The data are widely used by social scientists and policy makers to study labor force participation, poverty, and other high-priority topics. An underutilized feature of the CPS is its short-run panel component. This paper discusses the unique challenges encountered when linking basic monthly data in the 1976-1988 period as well as linking the March basic monthly...

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Current Population Survey: Version 8.0

Sarah Flood, Miriam King, Renae Rodgers, Steven Ruggles & J. Robert Warren
IPUMS-CPS is dedicated to integrating and disseminating microdata from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly U.S. household survey conducted jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. IPUMS-CPS contains harmonized data from every Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) supplement from 1962 to the present and all other supplements from 1976 to present. In addition to the many of the variables included in census data (race and...

IPUMS Restricted Full Count Data: Version 2.0

Steven Ruggles, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, J. David Hacker, Matt A. Nelson, Jose Pacas, Evan Roberts & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS USA makes freely available to researchers worldwide complete count U.S. Census microdata through 1940. This dataset includes over 650 million individual-level (1850-1940) and 7.5 million household-level records (1790-1840). The microdata represents the fruition of longstanding collaborations between IPUMS and the nation's two largest genealogical organizations —Ancestry.com and FamilySearch— to leverage genealogical data for scientific purposes. This microdata collection is possible due to the donations of an unprecedented scale of digitized census data by both...

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, International: Version 7.3

IPUMS-International is an effort to inventory, preserve, harmonize, and disseminate census microdata from around the world. The project has collected the world's largest archive of publicly available census samples. Historical census data are included in the collection, and the project has begun adding data from household and labor force surveys. All data are coded and documented consistently across countries and over time to facilitate comparative research. IPUMS-International makes these data available to qualified researchers free...

Racial Disparities in Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in United States Cities

Martin Eiermann, Elizabeth Wrigley-Field, Courtney Boen, James Feigenbaum, Jonas Helgertz, Elaine Hernandez & Christopher Muller
The 1918 influenza pandemic stands out for its extreme virulence and unusual age pattern of mortality. Here, we aim to elevate a third unusual feature of its course through United States cities to the same level of scientific prominence: the pandemic produced strikingly small racial disparities in mortality, against a backdrop of extreme racial inequality in the era. We provide the most complete account of racial disparities in influenza and pneumonia mortality in U.S. cities...

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