170 Works

User Beware: Concerning Findings from Recent U.S. Internal Revenue Service Migration Data

Jack DeWaard, Mathew Hauer, Elizabeth Fussell, Katherine J. Curtis, Stephan Whitaker, Kathryn McConnell, Kobie Price & David Egan-Robertson
The U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) makes publicly and freely available annual placebased and place-to-place migration data at the state and county levels. Among their many uses, the IRS migration data inform estimates of net-migration as part of the U.S. Census Bureau’s Population Estimates Program, which, in turn, are used for producing other annual statistics, survey design, business planning, community development programs, and federal funding allocations. In this Research Note, we document what appears to...

Early Fertility Decline in the United States: Tests of Alternative Hypotheses using New County-level and Individual-Level Census Data

Michael R. Haines, J. David Hacker & Matthew Jaremski
The U.S. fertility transition in the nineteenth century is unusual. Not only did it start from a very high fertility level and very early in the nation’s development, but it also took place long before the nation’s mortality transition, industrialization, and urbanization. This paper assembles new county-level, household-level, and individual-level data for census years 1800-1880 to evaluate different theories for the nineteenth-century American fertility transition. We construct county-level models of child-woman ratios in all census...

Analyzing the Demographic, Spatial, and Temporal Factors Influencing Social Contact Patterns in the U.S. and Implications for Infectious Disease Spread

Audrey Dorelien, Aparna Ramen & Isabella Swanson
We know diseases such as the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) are spread through social contact. Moreover, interventions to control social contacts such as stay-home orders are required to stop disease spread in pandemics for which vaccines have not yet been developed. However, existing data on social contact patterns in the United States (U.S.) is limited. Method: Consequently, we use American Time Use Survey data from 2003-2018 to describe and quantify the number and duration of...

National Historical Geographic Information System: Version 15.0

Steven Manson, Jonathan Schroeder, David Van Riper, Tracy Kugler & Steven Ruggles
The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) provides free online access to summary statistics and GIS boundary files for U.S. censuses and other nationwide surveys from 1790 through the present. GIS files include: counties and states since 1790, census tracts since 1910, metropolitan areas since 1950, place and county subdivision boundaries since 1980, place points since 1900, all standard census reporting areas since 1990, 200 and 2010 centers of population for four geographic levels, and...

Public Use Microdata Samples of the Slave Population of 1850-1860

Russell Menard, Trent Alexander, Jason Digman & J. David Hacker
The IPUMS 1850-1860 Slave Samples are a series of six samples taken from the 1850 and 1860 Censuses of Slave Inhabitants. In both 1850 and 1860, the United States census contained two population schedules. Schedule 1 enumerated details of the free population, while Schedule 2 enumerated details of the slave population. Samples from Schedule 1 of the 1850 and 1860 censuses are available at the main IPUMS site (https://usa.ipums.org/usa/). The Slave PUMS provides the first...

How do Populations Aggregate?

Dennis Feehan & Elizabeth Wrigley-Field
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between populations at different scales plays an important role in many demographic analyses. OBJECTIVE: We show that when a population can be partitioned into subgroups, the death rate for the entire population can be written as the weighted harmonic mean of the death rates in each subgroup, where the weights are given by the numbers of deaths in each subgroup. This decomposition can be generalized to other types of occurrence-exposure rate....

Racial Disparities in COVID-19 and Excess Mortality in Minnesota

Elizabeth Wrigley-Field, Sarah Garcia, Jonathon P. Leider, Christopher Robertson & Rebecca Wurtz
The COVID-19 pandemic has produced vastly disproportionate deaths for communities of color in the United States. Minnesota seemingly stands out as an exception to this national pattern, with white Minnesotans accounting for 80% of the population and 82% of COVID-19 deaths. We examine confirmed COVID mortality alongside deaths indirectly attributable to the pandemic – ‘excess mortality’ -- in Minnesota. This analysis reveals profound racial disparities: age-adjusted excess mortality rates for whites are exceeded by a...

Do Public Health Departments Improve Population Health? The Impact of City-level Health Departments over 1916-1933

Lauren Hoehn-Velasco & Elizabeth Wrigley-Field
Over the early twentieth century, urban centers across the United States adopted full-time public health departments. Using an event-study design, we show that opening full-time administration had no impact on mortality (all-cause, infant, by-cause). Then, we use city financial records to explain why health departments were ineffective. First, cities with and without health departments had comparable spending on public health. Second, per capita expenditures (and per capita expenditures interacted with a health department) correlate with...

American Heritage Time Use Study Extract Builder

Kimberly Fisher, Jonathan Gershuny, Sarah M. Flood, Joan Garcia Roman & Sandra L. Hofferth
AHTUS-X is a part of IPUMS Time Use, dedicated to making time use data easier for researchers to use. American Heritage Time Use Study (AHTUS) is a database of national time-diary samples collected over six decades, from 1965 to the present. Data includes harmonized variables describing background, activity, location, mode of transport and who else was present. AHTUS-X is a collaboration between the Maryland Population Research Center, the Centre for Time Use Research (CTUR) at...

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Current Population Survey

Sarah Flood, Miriam King, Steven Ruggles & J. Robert Warren
IPUMS-CPS is dedicated to integrating and disseminating microdata from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly U.S. household survey conducted jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. IPUMS-CPS contains harmonized data from every Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) supplement from 1962 to the present and all other supplements from 1976 to present. In addition to the many of the variables included in census data (race and...

National Historical Geographic Information System: Version 12.0

Steven Manson, Jonathan Schroeder, David Van Riper & Steven Ruggles
The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) provides free online access to summary statistics and GIS boundary files for U.S. censuses and other nationwide surveys from 1790 through the present. Boundary files include: counties and states since 1790, census tracts since 1910, metropolitan areas since 1950, places and county subdivisions since 1980, all standard census reporting areas since 1990, and SABINS school attendance areas for 2009-12. Summary tables from decennial censuses and the American Community...

American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder: Version 2.6

Sandra L. Hofferth, Sarah M. Flood & Matthew Sobek
The American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder (ATUS-X) is a part of IPUMS Time Use, dedicated to making time use data easier for researchers to use. The American Time Use Survey (ATUS) ATUS is an ongoing annual time diary study, started in 2003, that is funded by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and fielded by the U.S. Census Bureau. It provides detailed information about the activities in which respondents engage together with...

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 7.0

Steven Ruggles, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS USA contains harmonized census and American Community Survey (ACS) data from 1790 to the present. For the period 1850 to 1940, IPUMS includes 100% of individuals in the decennial censuses. For the period 1950 to 2010, we have public use samples of decennial censuses. For the period since 2000, IPUMS provides annual ACS public use samples. The available information in the censuses and ACS varies by year, but generally includes basic housing data (type...

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Current Population Survey: Version 6.0

Sarah Flood, Miriam King, Renae Rodgers, Steven Ruggles & J. Robert Warren
IPUMS-CPS is dedicated to integrating and disseminating microdata from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly U.S. household survey conducted jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. IPUMS-CPS contains harmonized data from every Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) supplement from 1962 to the present and all other supplements from 1976 to present. In addition to the many of the variables included in census data (race and...

American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder: Version 2.7

Sandra L. Hofferth, Sarah M. Flood & Matthew Sobek
The American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder (ATUS-X) is a part of IPUMS Time Use, dedicated to making time use data easier for researchers to use. The American Time Use Survey (ATUS) ATUS is an ongoing annual time diary study, started in 2003, that is funded by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and fielded by the U.S. Census Bureau. It provides detailed information about the activities in which respondents engage together with...

IPUMS Time Use

These projects provide free individual-level time use data for research purposes. The data extract systems make it easy to create data sets containing time use and other variables a user needs. The American Time Use Survey Extract Builder provides access to the Annual American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data from 2003 forward. The American Heritage Time Use Study Extract Builder (AHTUS) provides historical American time use data since 1965 harmonized for comparison over time, including...

IPUMS Global Health

IPUMS Global Health provides integrated international health survey data at no cost for research and educational purposes from two data series. The Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) provides integrated demographic and health surveys from the DHS Program, currently covering Africa and South Asian surveys from the 1980s to the present. The Performance, Monitoring, and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) provides integrated surveys on fertility, contraception, hygiene, and health, administered frequently to monitor trends in select high-fertility counties.

Roommates or Families? Access to Housing and the Transition to Non-Marital Cohabitation in Sweden

Nathanael T. Lauster
Some researchers suggest that non-marital cohabitants behave like a subcategory of roommates, while others find non-marital cohabitants behave like new families. If non-marital cohabitants behave like roommates, then more access to housing would make young adults more likely to remain single. If non-marital cohabitants behave like families, then more access to housing would make young adults more likely to cohabit. In this paper I directly test these two competing hypotheses with life course data from...

The Rise of Cohabitation in the United States: New Historical Estimates

Catherine Fitch, Ron Goeken & Steven Ruggles
This paper improves on previous attempts to infer cohabitation from the decennial census. The 1990 and 2000 censuses included specific responses for “unmarried partner” in the relationship question; previous censuses classified these individuals in broader “partner/roommate” or “partner/friend” categories. Our goal is to infer as best we can which individuals in the censuses of 1960 though 1980 would have described themselves as opposite sex unmarried partners if that option had been available on the census....

Continued Interest in the Appalachian Immigrant is not Warranted: Appalachian Out-Migrants in the Larger Southern Exodus, 1940-1980

J. Trent Alexander
Even as southern Appalachian migrants began to actively assert a group identity in some northern cities in the late 1960s, it was an open question as to whether they ought to be considered a group at all. In the years since the 1960s, the fate of southern Appalachian migrants in the North and Midwest has continued to be the subject of much debate. Migrants from the southern Appalachian region were clearly a group apart in...

State-Level High School Completion Rates: Concepts, Measures and Trends

John Robert Warren
I review state-level measures of high school completion rates, and describe and validate a new measure that reports these rates for 1973 through 2000. Existing measures based on Current Population Surveys are conceptually imperfect and statistically unreliable. Measures based on Common Core Data (CCD) dropout information are unavailable for many states and have different conceptual weaknesses. Existing measures based on CCD enrollment and completion data are systematically biased by migration, changes in cohort size, and...

Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Young Adult Union Formation

Ann Meier, Gina Allen & Christina Falci
Life course sociologists and developmental psychologists assert that adolescent romantic relationships further the developmental goal of providing “practice” for romantic relationships in adulthood. Yet, we know little about how patterns of romantic involvement in adolescence translate into young adult relationships. This paper examines the role of adolescents’ romantic relationship experience on young adult unions. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we identify adolescent romantic relationship trajectories. First, we investigate how...

Drawing Statistical Inferences from Historical Census Data

Michael Davern, Steven Ruggles, Tami Swenson & J. Michael Oakes
Virtually all quantitative microdata used by social scientists derive from samples that incorporate clustering, stratification, and weighting adjustments (Kish 1992, 1965). Such data can yield standard error estimates that differ dramatically from a simple random sample of the same size. Researchers using historical U.S. census microdata, however, usually apply methods designed for simple random samples. The resulting p-values and confidence intervals could be inaccurate and could lead to erroneous research conclusions. Because U.S. census microdata...

Intermittent Child Employment and Its Implications for Estimates of Child Labor

Deborah Levison, Jasper Hoek, David Lam & Suzanne Duryea
This paper uses longitudinal data from urban Brazil to analyze intermittency in children’s work activity and the implications of this intermittency for estimates of child labor. We follow the employment patterns of urban children ages 10-16 during 4 months in their lives. Different waves of the panel cover most of the 1980s and 1990s, providing information on the work activity of thousands of children. We document a large decline in child employment in the 1990s....

Child Domestic Servants in Latin America: Numbers, Trends and Education

Deborah Levison & Anna Langer
This paper summarizes trends in the use of child domestic servants in six Latin American countries using IPUMS-International census samples for 1960 to 2000. Child domestics are among the most vulnerable of child workers, and the most invisible. They may be treated kindly and allowed to attend school, or they may be secluded in their employers’ home, overworked, verbally abused, beaten, and unable to leave or report their difficulties to kin. Estimates and imputations are...

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