89 Works

The Development of Family Interrelationship Variables for International Census Data

Matthew Sobek & Sheela Kennedy
Population microdata are typically organized into households, but household relationships are often ambiguous for persons outside the nuclear family. To facilitate comparative research on families and households, the Minnesota Population Center has developed consistent "pointer" variables identifying each person's mother, father and spouse for the International Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS-International), a freely available database of 279 million person records from 44 countries. This paper documents the methodology used to identify the most likely...

Employment for Youth: A Growing Challenge for the Global Community

Ragui Assaad & Deborah Levison
Social and economic challenges facing young people today must be understood in terms of the complex interaction between unique demographic trends and specific economic contexts. There has been an unprecedented growth in the number of young people in the Global South in the past two decades, and these youth face situations where the forces of economic globalization interact with historically determined national and regional economic structures and policies. Although we will argue that unemployment is...

Methodological Challenges in Studying the Impact of Domestic Violence on Children's Human Capital: An Application to Colombia

Ragui Assaad, Greta Friedemann-Sanchez & Deborah Levison
This paper examines the effects of intimate-partner violence (IPV) against the mother on the educational outcomes of her children ages 6-14. We explore the potential non-random selection of children into situations where they are exposed to IPV using non-parametric matching methods and parametric instrumental variables methods. The analyses of Colombia’s 2005 DHS (N= 21,827) indicate that mother’s exposure to IPV reduces children’s school attendance by 1.2 to 2.7 percentage points, depending on methodology, substantial when...

Re-Thinking the Two-Body Problem: The Segregation of Women into Geographically-Dispersed Occupation

Alan Benson
Research on the family cites the tendency for couples to relocate for husbands’ careers as evidence against the gender-neutrality of household economic decisions. I test whether the prioritization of husbands’ careers in mobility decisions is endogenous to men’s and women’s occupations. Consistent with this hypothesis, I find the tendency for households to relocate for husbands’ careers is better-explained by the segregation of women into geographically-dispersed occupations in advance of marriage rather than by the direct...

Is Timing Everything? Parental Unemployment and Children's Educational Attainment

Caren Arbeit
Drawing from research on parental unemployment, sibling differences and life course theories, I consider whether (and how) the timing of a parent’s job loss moderates the impact of the event on children’s educational attainment in adulthood. Life course and child development theories lead to a hypothesis that the timing of family events in each child’s life may lead to long-term differences in educational attainment. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I examine the educational...

The Sensitivity of the Intrinsic Estimator to Coding Schemes: A Comment on Yang, Schulhofer-Wohl, Fu, and Land

Liying Luo, James Hodges, Christopher Winship & Daniel Powers
The Intrinsic Estimator (IE) has been proposed to address the age-period-cohort problem and is believed by many to yield robust and reliable estimates. We, however, show that IE estimates are highly sensitive to one’s choice of coding scheme or model parameterization. We reanalyze data from published articles to demonstrate that estimation results using one coding scheme (e.g., the zero-to-sum coding) can be dramatically different from those obtained using a different coding scheme (e.g., reference group...

Is School the Best Route to Skills? Returns to Vocational School and Vocational Skills in Egypt

Caroline Krafft
Formal vocational schooling is expected by many to be the best route to job skills, to make young Egyptians highly employable and to generate substantial returns. This paper compares the returns to formal vocational secondary education and the returns to vocational skills acquired through other routes, such as apprenticeships, in Egypt. By using a unique panel data set that allows for a comparison of siblings, this paper estimates the impact of education and skills on...

Trends in Spouses' Shared Time in the United States, 1965-2012

Katie Genadek, Sarah M. Flood & Joan Garcia Roman
Despite major demographic changes over the past fifty years and strong evidence that time spent with a spouse is important for marriages, we know very little about how time with a spouse has changed, or not changed, in the United States. Using time use survey data from 1965-2012, we examine trends in couples’ shared time in the United States during a period of major changes in American marriages and families. We find that couples without...

Harmonized census geography and spatio-temporal analysis: Gender equality and empowerment of women in Africa

Sula Sarkar, Lara Cleveland, Majory Silisyene & Matthew Sobek
Changes in administrative boundaries pose major challenges for spatio-temporal population research. Researchers interested in change over time need to hold space constant to study contextual or spatial effects on behaviors and outcomes. Boundary changes risk polluting their analyses with artifacts that obscure real changes that may have occurred. This paper describes the method by which spatially consistent geographic units have been constructed in the IPUMS-International census data collection for several countries over a fifty year...

Using the Annual Social and Economic Supplement with Current Population Survey Panels

Sarah Flood & José Pacas
The Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) is the most widely used type of Current Population Survey (CPS) data because of its rich information on employment, unions, health insurance and taxes. Researchers typically use these data as repeated cross sections despite the longitudinal component of the CPS, which many researchers are unaware of and very few leverage. The IPUMS-CPS (https://cps.ipums.org) project at the University of Minnesota is undergoing a large-scale effort to unlock the enormous...

Correlates and Consequences of American War Casualties in World War I

Evan Roberts & Alexandra Burda
Outside of international relations much of the scholarship on World War I has come from historians rather than social scientists. Thus, there has been little attention paid to extending our knowledge of the basic demographic facts of American involvement in World War I, and analysis of the social impact of the war on veterans and their communities. After knowing how many Americans died, demographers might ask how did they die, and how did mortality rates...

Implications of Differential Privacy for Census Bureau Data Dissemination

The Census Bureau has announced a new set of standards and methods for disclosure control in public use data products. The new approach, known as differential privacy, represents a radical departure from current practice. In its pure form, differential privacy techniques may make the release of useful microdata impossible and severely limit the utility of tabular small-area data. Adoption of differential privacy will have far-reaching consequences for research. It is possible—even likely—that scientists, planners, and...

IPUMS: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Version 1.0

Matthew J. Sobek, Daniel Backman, Greg Freedman Ellis & Kari C.W. Williams
IPUMS YRBSS contains harmonized Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) data from 1991-2013. The YRBSS is a school-based, cross-sectional national survey of youth in grades 9-12. The YRBSS focuses on health risk behaviors that are often established during childhood and early adolescence, including behaviors associated with tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, unintentional injuries, sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, unhealthy diet, and inadequate physical activity. On average, the survey...

IPUMS-PMA: Version 2.0

Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Devon Kristiansen & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS-PMA is a harmonized data collection of Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020, a high-frequency survey for the measurement of progress toward Family Planning 2020 goals. It consists of individual-level and facility-level microdata collected through household, female, and service delivery point surveys about family planning behaviors, water, sanitation, health, and reproductive health care provision in 11 countries of Africa and Asia.

IPUMS Terra: Integrated Data on Population and Environment: Version 2

Steven Ruggles, Steven M. Manson, Tracy A. Kugler, David A., II Haynes, David C. Van Riper & Maryia Bakhtsiyarava
IPUMS Terra provides data on human population characteristics, land use, land cover, climate and other environmental characteristics. The data provide global coverage at scales appropriate for sub-national analysis. IPUMS Terra integrates microdata describing individuals and households, aggregate data describing population and land use characteristics of places, and raster data describing environmental conditions. Users can construct extracts incorporating any data in the collection, regardless of its storage format, and obtain integrated extracts in microdata, area-level, or...

Sibling Models of the Role of Job Characteristics in Mediating SES-Health Relationships

Jeanie E. Brand, John Robert Warren, Pascale Carayon & Peter Honnakker
We focus on physical and psychosocial job characteristics as mediators in the link between education, earnings, and occupational standing and self-assessed overall health, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health problems, and depression. From sociological research on the stratification of employment outcomes, we expect that people with less education also have lower earnings and lower levels of occupational standing, and have more physically and psychosocially demanding jobs. From the occupational stress, ergonomics, and job design literatures, we expect...

Intergenerational Coresidence in Developing Countries

Steven Ruggles & Misty Heggeness
We use newly-available census microdata from IPUMS-International to assess trends in intergenerational coresidence in 15 developing countries. Contrary to expectations, we find no general decline in intergenerational coresidence over the past several decades. There have been, however, significant changes in the configuration of intergenerational coresidence. Families in which the older generation is household head—a configuration consistent with traditional patriarchal forms in which the older generation retains authority—are becoming more common in most of the countries....

Youth Placed Out-of-Home for Behavioral Reasons: An Analysis of Characteristics, Type of Placements, and Length of Stay

Misty Heggeness & Elizabeth Davis
This study analyzes the experience of youth placed out-of-home by two local county departments, human services and corrections, in a large Midwestern metropolitan county. The study goals are to determine whether youth placed by each department have similar characteristics and to analyze the factors associated with type of placement and length of stay. We find that youth have similar characteristics and experiences regardless of which department places them. We conclude that county departments appear to...

The Whole Village Project: A Platform for Evaluating Rural Development Projects

Joseph A. Ritter, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Kari Hartwig, Susan James, Deborah Levison, Esther Ngadaya & Craig Packer
The Whole Village Project, a joint undertaking of Savannas Forever Tanzania (a Tanzanian NGO) and the University of Minnesota, offers a cost-effective platform for evaluation of development projects. Detailed baseline longitudinal data are collected in a large number of rural villages and can be shared among a large number of projects for evaluation or research. The baseline can be supplemented with project-specific modules. This model enables good quality evaluations for a wide range of development...

Drawing Statistical Inferences from International Census Data

Lara L. Cleveland, Michael Davern & Steven Ruggles
Although census microdata used by social scientists derive from complex samples, researchers commonly apply methods designed for simple random samples. Using full count census data from 4 countries, we evaluate the impact of sample design on standard error estimates of microdata samples from the IPUMS International. We compare replicate standard error estimates from the full count data to estimates from the 10% public use samples using 3 methods: subsample replicate, Taylor series linearization, and estimates...

Breaking up is Hard to Count: The Rise of Divorce and Cohabitation Instability in the United States

Sheela Kennedy & Steven Ruggles
This paper critically evaluates the available data on trends in divorce and the dissolution of cohabiting unions in the United States. We find that both vital statistics and retrospective survey data on divorce after 1990 underestimate recent marital instability. These flawed data led some analysts to conclude that divorce risk has been stable or declining for the past three decades. Using new data from the American Community Survey and controlling for changes in the composition...

Economic and Health Outcomes of Unpaid Caregiving: A Framework from the Health and Social Sciences

Greta Friedemann-Sánchez & Joan M. Griffin
Unpaid caregiving performed by family members for dependents is often overlooked in research and policies on development processes and outcomes. This article presents a framework for understanding the determinants and effects of caregiving for caregivers, organized into three levels: at the micro-level, individual care recipient and caregiver characteristics and resources; at the meso-level social norms, social support, and community resources; and at the macro-level, caregiver support policies. Drawing on existing evidence from developed and developing...

Comparisons of At-Home and Breadwinner Parents' Time Use: What matters most, gender or jobs?

Noelle Chesley & Sarah Flood
Explanations for gender difference often focus on relative differences in time and money connected to employment within couples and cultural (e.g. doing gender) arguments to pinpoint the mechanisms that lead to gender-based inequality. However, previous research indicates clear differences in how heterosexual couples allocate time to childcare, housework, and leisure, suggesting that time/money tradeoffs and cultural pressures may operate in different ways across different areas of time use. Further, research points to couples with atypical...

Mass Probation: Toward a More Robust Theory of State Variation in Punishment

Michelle Phelps
Scholarship on the expansion of the U.S. carceral state has primarily focused on imprisonment rates. Yet the majority of adults under formal criminal justice control are on probation, an ‘‘alternative’’ form of supervision. This article develops the concept of mass probation and builds a typology of state control regimes that theorizes both the scale and type of punishment states employ. Drawing on Bureau of Justice Statistics data from 1980 and 2010, I analyze whether mass...

Physical Well-Being and Ethnic Inequality in New Zealand Prisons, 1840-1975

Kris Inwood, Les Oxley & Evan Roberts
The British colonization of New Zealand after 1840 was marked by an unusual concern for incorporating the indigenous Maori population into the new society. But despite a continuing political rhetoric of protection and sovereignty Maori have historically had lower living standards and, since the 1920s, higher rates of incarceration than European-descended New Zealanders (Pakeha). In this paper we examine differences between Maori and Pakeha over 130 years using prison records. Aggregate data from the Ministry...

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