89 Works

Family Matters: Development of new family interrelationship variables for US IPUMS data projects

Marina Mileo Gorsuch & Kari Charlotte Wigness Williams
In demographic datasets, researchers frequently want to identify how members of a household are related. In 1995, IPUMS constructed family interrelationship variables indicating the line numbers (or "location") of each person's co-resident parents and spouse. These variables enabled researchers to examine household and family structure in a new way, including attaching the characteristics of a person’s spouse or parents as new variables. However, the original IPUMS family interrelationship variables have become outdated because of changing...

Building a National Longitudinal Research Infrastructure

Steven Ruggles, Catherine Fitch & Matthew Sobek
This paper describes a new initiative to create and disseminate longitudinal data infrastructure for the United States based on the entire population enumerated between 1850 and 2020. The National Longitudinal Research Infrastructure (NLRI) aims to produce a foundational reference collection for demographic and health research. The availability of a massive collection of life histories of the U.S. population over 170 years will open new avenues for social and behavioral research, education, and policy-making. By disseminating...

Does Marital Quality Predict Togetherness? Couples’ Shared Time and Happiness During Encore Adulthood

Sarah M. Flood, Katie R. Genadek & Phyllis Moen
We use data from the 2009 and 2013 Supplements on Disability and Use of Time to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the relationship between marital quality and couples’ shared time and happiness in a new “encore adult” life course stage around the 50s, 60s, and 70s. Our research addresses a major limitation of previous research by considering how marital quality is associated with time with a spouse; we tap into the quality...

Internal Migration in the United States: A Comprehensive Comparative Assessment of the Consumer Credit Panel

Jack DeWaard, Janna E. Johnson & Stephan D. Whitaker
We introduce and provide the first comprehensive comparative assessment of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York Consumer Credit Panel (CCP) to demonstrate the utility and unique advantages of these data for research on internal migration in the United States. Relative to other data sources on U.S. internal migration, the CCP permits highly detailed cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of migration, both temporally and geographically. After introducing these data, we compare cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates of...

IPUMS-Demographic and Health Surveys: Version 5

Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Miriam King & Matthew Sobek
The IPUMS-DHS project harmonizes Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data and documentation for Africa, the Middle East and Asia to facilitate comparative research across time and countries. The DHS are the main source of information on health in low- and middle-income countries. IPUMS-DHS is designed to facilitate analysis of DHS data across time and space. IPUMS-DHS adds value to the original DHS samples in the following ways: variables are coded consistently across countries and over...

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, International: Version 7.1

IPUMS-International is an effort to inventory, preserve, harmonize, and disseminate census microdata from around the world. The project has collected the world's largest archive of publicly available census samples. The data are coded and documented consistently across countries and over time to facilitate comparative research. IPUMS-International makes these data available to qualified researchers free of charge through a web dissemination system. Historical census data from Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Germany, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and...

IPUMS USA: Version 8.0 Extract of 1940 Census for U.S. Census Bureau Disclosure Avoidance Research

Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas & Matthew Sobek
The U.S. Census Bureau is using the 1940 Census full enumeration from IPUMS USA as one of the test microdata files supporting the development of the differential privacy method for confidentiality protection system for the 2020 Census. When the Census Bureau releases algorithms and code for testing the 2020 Census system, those programs will also work on this extract from the 1940 Census. The Census Bureau urges all external testers of its algorithms to also...

IPUMS Demographic and Health Surveys: Version 6

Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Miriam King & Matthew Sobek
The IPUMS-DHS project harmonizes Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data and documentation for Africa, the Middle East and Asia to facilitate comparative research across time and countries. The DHS are the main source of information on health in low- and middle-income countries. IPUMS-DHS is designed to facilitate analysis of DHS data across time and space. IPUMS-DHS adds value to the original DHS samples in the following ways: variables are coded consistently across countries and over...

Redefining and Measuring Sexual Revolution, with an Example from the IPUMS Census Data 1880-2000

Nathanael T. Lauster
In this paper I redefine the concept of sexual revolution and suggest two new measurements for the process. I review prior definitions and measurements of sexual revolution. I redefine sexual revolution in response to a Victorian script linking the public statuses of marriage and childbearing to the privacy of sexual experience. I measure sexual revolution as resistance to this script. In particular, women break the link between sex, marriage, and childbearing, and make sexual behavior...

The Effect of Child Work on Schooling: Evidence from Egypt

Ragui Assaad, Deborah Levison & Nadia Zibani
The negative correlation between children’s work and schooling is well-documented. However, the causal link between child labor and school attainment has not been well established in the literature. We show that work, broadly defined, substantially reduces schooling for both boys and girls. We present evidence that lower rates of school attendance for Egyptian girls are caused by a substantial burden of household work. While market work is a serious impediment to schooling for boys, a...

Residential Segregation and Labor-Market Outcomes: The Importance of Race, Gender and Marital Status

Jenny B. Wahl
Whatever the reason, racial segregation in housing potentially affects employment and wage rates. My research suggests that any analysis of residential segregation and labor-market outcomes should account for gender and marital status as well as race and age. Correcting for selection bias in wage regressions is also important; neglecting to do so overestimates the racial wage gap. Among adults of all ages, segregation in housing appears to have the most deleterious effect upon single black...

Urban Form and Family-Engaged Active Leisure: Impact Assessment Using the Census Data and Nighttime Satelite Images

Yinglink Fan
This research examines whether urban form indicators are useful predictors of family-engaged active leisure among U.S. population. The study sample includes 23,759 adult respondents from the 2003-2008 American Time Use Survey who lived with family members in 326 metropolitan counties. Urban form is measured at the county level by two methods: one uses the remotely-sensed nighttime satellite imagery and generates scale-adjusted sprawl indices based upon per capita land consumption, and another uses the ground-based Census...

Racial Bias in Traffic Stops: Tests of a Unified Model of Stops and Searches

Joseph A. Ritter
This paper develops a model of traffic stops and subsequent searches in which police officers use information about the race of drivers to maximize a well defined objective. The model provides a behavioral foundation absent from Grogger and Ridgeway’s (2006) elegantly simple test and, by incorporating searches, adds two complementary tests. Using data collected during 2002 by the Minneapolis Police Department, the tests rule out (1) statistical discrimination, (2) taste-based discrimination by optimizing police officers,...

Time for Each Other: Work and Family Constraints among Couples

Sarah Flood & Katie Genadek
Spousal interaction is an important component of marital quality, but researchers know little about couples’ shared time. We investigate: 1) relationships between single vs. dual-earner status and time with one’s spouse, 2) family life stage differences in time with a spouse, and 3) individual well-being when with one’s spouse. We use data from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2010), including the 2010 Well-Being Module. We find that men in dual-earner arrangements spend less time with...

Big Microdata for Population Research

Steven Ruggles
This article describes an explosion in the availability of individual-level population data. By 2018, demographic researchers will have access to over two billion records of accessible microdata from over 100 countries, dating from 1703 to the present. Another two to four billion records will become available through restricted-access data enclaves. I argue that these new resources represent a new kind of data that will enable transformative research on demographic and economic change and the spatial...

Marriage, Family Systems, and Economic Opportunity in the United States Since 1850

Steven Ruggles
The decline of marriage over the past half century ranks among the most profound demographic transformations in American demographic history. This paper puts recent change into historical context by providing new estimates of long-run trends in marriage. I then describe change in the family economy and explore the impact of economic changes on marriage behavior. I conclude with a discussion of cultural and structural explanations for change and their implications for the future.

Stage Migration within and through Migration Systems: Implications for Population Recovery in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

Jack DeWaard, Katherine J. Curtis & Elizabeth Fussell
In this paper, we apply a migration systems perspective to understand how places affected by natural disasters recover their populations through in-migration when in-migration is delayed on account of post-disaster impediments (e.g., housing and property damage) in disaster-affected areas. Specifically, we consider and test the idea that post-disaster impediments spawn innovation in migration systems in the form of indirect, or "stage," migration flows toward and, over time, to disaster-affected areas through intermediary destinations. Taking as...

Field of Study and Earnings Inequality among the Highly Educated: 1993-2010

Joseph A. Ritter & Kristine L. West
Field of study specializes individuals’ human capital in ways that might be either substitutable or complementary to technological change. We study changes in the earnings distribution of the college-educated population between 1993 and 2010 using the National Survey of College Graduates. After documenting changes that increase earnings inequality, we decompose them into composition and wage-structure effects. We find that composition effects account for virtually none of the growth of inequality and, in fact, are surprisingly...

Spatial Manifestations of the “Great American Migration Slowdown”: A Decomposition of Inter-County Migration Rates, 1990-2012

Jack DeWaard, Elizabeth Fussell, Katherine J. Curtis & Jasmine Trang Ha
Prior research on the “Great American Migration Slowdown,” which refers to the declining rate of U.S. internal migration in recent years and decades, has ignored the spatial manifestations of migration slowdown. This misses an important part of the story because, as we show in this paper, U.S. counties became increasingly connected to one another by migration over the past two decades, with gains in migration “connectivity” helping to partially offset the Great American Migration Slowdown....

Capturing the American People: Census Technology and Institutional Change, 1790-2020

Steven Ruggles & Diana L. Magnuson
Political considerations not only shaped the content and applications of the census, but also the mechanics of census taking. This essay traces the history of U. S. census data capture, which we define as the methods and technologies used to transform raw census responses into statistical tables. By focusing on federal responses to a specific technical challenge over a very long span, our narrative illuminates the long-run effects of shifting societal preoccupations on bureaucratic decision-making....

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Current Population Survey: Version 6.0

Sarah Flood, Miriam King, Renae Rodgers, Steven Ruggles & J. Robert Warren
IPUMS-CPS is dedicated to integrating and disseminating microdata from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly U.S. household survey conducted jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. IPUMS-CPS contains harmonized data from every Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) supplement from 1962 to the present and all other supplements from 1976 to present. In addition to the many of the variables included in census data (race and...

American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder: Version 2.7

Sandra L. Hofferth, Sarah M. Flood & Matthew Sobek
The American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder (ATUS-X) is a part of IPUMS Time Use, dedicated to making time use data easier for researchers to use. The American Time Use Survey (ATUS) ATUS is an ongoing annual time diary study, started in 2003, that is funded by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and fielded by the U.S. Census Bureau. It provides detailed information about the activities in which respondents engage together with...

IPUMS Time Use

These projects provide free individual-level time use data for research purposes. The data extract systems make it easy to create data sets containing time use and other variables a user needs. The American Time Use Survey Extract Builder provides access to the Annual American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data from 2003 forward. The American Heritage Time Use Study Extract Builder (AHTUS) provides historical American time use data since 1965 harmonized for comparison over time, including...

Roommates or Families? Access to Housing and the Transition to Non-Marital Cohabitation in Sweden

Nathanael T. Lauster
Some researchers suggest that non-marital cohabitants behave like a subcategory of roommates, while others find non-marital cohabitants behave like new families. If non-marital cohabitants behave like roommates, then more access to housing would make young adults more likely to remain single. If non-marital cohabitants behave like families, then more access to housing would make young adults more likely to cohabit. In this paper I directly test these two competing hypotheses with life course data from...

The Rise of Cohabitation in the United States: New Historical Estimates

Catherine Fitch, Ron Goeken & Steven Ruggles
This paper improves on previous attempts to infer cohabitation from the decennial census. The 1990 and 2000 censuses included specific responses for “unmarried partner” in the relationship question; previous censuses classified these individuals in broader “partner/roommate” or “partner/friend” categories. Our goal is to infer as best we can which individuals in the censuses of 1960 though 1980 would have described themselves as opposite sex unmarried partners if that option had been available on the census....

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