23 Works


IPUMS USA collects, preserves and harmonizes U.S. census microdata and provides easy access to this data with enhanced documentation. Data includes decennial censuses from 1790 to 2010 and American Community Surveys (ACS) from 2000 to the present. IPUMS USA includes basic demographic data (e.g., age, race, sex, marital status, and relationship to the head of household), along with economic data (e.g., occupation, industry, income, work status, education, migration, place of work, type of housing, disability...


IPUMS CPS harmonizes microdata from the monthly U.S. labor force survey, the Current Population Survey (CPS), covering the period 1962 to the present. Data include demographic information, rich employment data, program participation and supplemental data on topics such as fertility, tobacco use, volunteer activities, voter registration, computer and internet use, food security, and more. The CPS is a monthly U.S. household survey conducted jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics....

Immigration, Suburbia, and the Politics of Population in US Metropolitan Areas

Kyle Walker
Suburbs in the United States, traditionally represented as a homogenous domain of white, middle-class residents, are in the midst of unprecedented demographic change due to immigration. Suburban immigrant populations now outnumber and are growing faster than their counterparts in central cities. Many suburbs across the country have responded unfavorably to these demographic changes, however, pushing in some cases for the implementation of ordinances and other local policies specifically designed to exclude undocumented immigrants from their...

Harmonizing the 2010 and 2002 Census Occupation Coding Schemes

Kari C.W. Williams & Sarah M. Flood
The study of occupations has a long history in the social sciences. The United States Census Bureau creates and updates occupation codes based on the Standard Occupation Classification System to systematically identify similar jobs and classify them into occupations. Periodic updates to occupation codes are necessary for documenting emerging and disappearing occupations and appropriately reflecting the labor market. While these updates are important for capturing the changing jobs that are performed in the United States,...

IPUMS Health Surveys: National Health Interview Survey, Version 6.4

Lynn A. Blewett, Julia A. Rivera Drew, Miriam L. King & Kari C.W. Williams
The IPUMS NHIS is a harmonized set of data for over 50 years (1963-present) of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is the principal source of information on the health of the U.S. population, covering such topics as general health status, the distribution of acute and chronic illness, functional limitations, access to and use of medical services, insurance coverage, and health behaviors (such as exercise, diet, and tobacco and alcohol consumption). On average,...

Unequally Insecure: Rising Black/White Disparities in Job Displacement, 1981-2017

Elizabeth Wrigley-Field & Nathan Seltzer
Social scientists have documented vast racial disparities in labor market outcomes such as hiring and firing decisions, compensation, and opportunities for occupational advancement. Yet little is known about the racial patterning of job displacement (permanent involuntary layoffs), a remarkably common labor market outcome. Using data from the Displaced Worker Survey, covering nearly four decades of displacements, 1981-2017, we provide the first systematic analysis of Black/white displacement disparities. We find that Black workers were nearly always...

Opening the Front Door: Household Composition as a Link Between Asian American Identities and Histories

Ummul-Kiram Kathawalla & Carolyn A. Liebler

MPC Working Paper Series

The purpose of our working paper series is to highlight the population-related research of MPC members. All papers have completed a review process prior to the posting in the Working Paper Series, but full responsibility for the content of the paper remains with the author(s).

Multinational Time Use Study Extract System: Version 1.3

Kimberly Fisher, Jonathan Gershuny, Sarah M. Flood, Daniel Backman & Sandra L. Hofferth
MTUS-X is a part of IPUMS Time Use, dedicated to making time use data easier for researchers to use. The Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) is a database of time-diary samples collected over six decades, from 1965 to the present. Data includes harmonized variables describing background, activity, location, mode of transport and who else was present. MTUS-X is a collaboration between the Maryland Population Research Center, the Centre for Time Use Research (CTUR) at the...

IPUMS USA: Version 9.0

Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS USA contains harmonized census and American Community Survey (ACS) data from 1790 to the present. For the period 1850 to 1940, IPUMS includes 100% of individuals in the decennial censuses. For the period 1950 to 2010, we have public use samples of decennial censuses. For the period since 2000, IPUMS provides annual ACS public use samples. The available information in the censuses and ACS varies by year, but generally includes basic housing data (type...

Same-Sex Couples' Shared Time in the United States

Katie Genadek & Sarah M. Flood
This study examines and compares shared time for same-sex and different-sex coresident couples using large, nationally representative data from the 2003-2016 American Time Use Survey (ATUS). We compare the total time same-sex couples and different-sex couples spend together, as well as for parents, the time they spend together with children, and for both parents and non-parents, the time they spend together with no one else present and the time they spend with others (excluding children)....

Across the Rural-Urban Universe: Two Continuous Indices of Urbanization for U.S. Census Microdata

Jonathan Schroeder & José Pacas
To distinguish urban and rural populations in the U.S., a common practice is to use one of the official federal classifications of metropolitan/non-metropolitan (i.e., metro/nonmetro) or urban/rural areas. These classifications, however, are not identified in public use census microdata, which makes it difficult to investigate relationships between the urban/rural status of individuals and their demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, and living arrangements. The standard classifications are also coarse, masking potentially important variations, and they represent two...

IPUMS-PMA: Version 2.1

Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Devon Kristiansen & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS-PMA is a harmonized data collection of Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020, a high-frequency survey for the measurement of progress toward Family Planning 2020 goals. It consists of individual-level and facility-level microdata collected through household, female, and service delivery point surveys about family planning behaviors, water, sanitation, health, and reproductive health care provision in 11 countries of Africa and Asia.


IPUMS Terra integrates population and environmental data across disciplinary scientific domains, enabling research into dramatic transformations of human populations, the environment, and their interactions. IPUMS Terra uses location-based integration to make population microdata, area-level data describing places, and spatially gridded raster data interoperable. IPUMS Terra data span the globe and extend over several decades. The IPUMS Terra collection includes population microdata from around the world, incorporating the IPUMS International dataset; area-level population data, both aggregated...

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, International: Version 7.2

IPUMS-International is an effort to inventory, preserve, harmonize, and disseminate census microdata from around the world. The project has collected the world's largest archive of publicly available census samples. The data are coded and documented consistently across countries and over time to facilitate comparative research. IPUMS-International makes these data available to qualified researchers free of charge through a web dissemination system. Historical census data from Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Germany, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and...


IPUMS-International is dedicated to collecting and distributing census data from around the world. The project goals are to collect and preserve data and documentation, harmonize data, and disseminate the harmonized data free of charge. Source data for IPUMS-International are generously provided by participating National Statistical Offices. With 610 million records, spanning 82 countries, IPUMS International is the world's largest collection of publicly available individual-level census data. The data are anonymized samples from population censuses taken...


The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) provides population, housing, agricultural, and economic data, along with GIS-compatible boundary files for geographic units in the United States from 1790 to the present. Through the NHGIS, users can download: 1) Boundary files for states and counties back to 1790, for census tracts back to 1910, and for all standard census units, including census blocks, since 1990, 2) Summary tables from all decennial censuses, the American Community Survey,...

Multidimensional Mortality Selection: Why Individual dimensions of Frailty Don't Ace Like Frailty

Elizabeth Wrigley-Field
Theoretical models of mortality selection have great utility in explaining otherwise puzzling phenomena. The most famous example may be the black-white mortality crossover: at old ages, blacks outlive whites, presumably because few frail blacks survive to old ages while some frail whites do. Yet theoretical models of unidimensional heterogeneity, or frailty, do not speak to the most common empirical situation for mortality researchers—where some important population heterogeneity is observed while some is not. I show...

Same-Sex Couples' Shared Time in the United States

Sarah M. Flood & Katie Genadek
Identification of same-sex couples in the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) is of increasing interest to the research community. While the ATUS surveys one person per household, using information about who else lives in the household, researchers can easily identify respondents in co-resident same-sex couple arrangements. Previous research has outlined two approaches to identifying same-sex couples in the ATUS that use information on the sex of household members. We extend that work by using additional...

National Historical Geographic Information System: Version 14.0

Steven Manson, Jonathan Schroeder, David Van Riper & Steven Ruggles
The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) provides free online access to summary statistics and GIS boundary files for U.S. censuses and other nationwide surveys from 1790 through the present. GIS files include: counties and states since 1790, census tracts since 1910, metropolitan areas since 1950, place and county subdivision boundaries since 1980, place points since 1900, all standard census reporting areas since 1990, 200 and 2010 centers of population for four geographic levels, and...

IPUMS-PMA: Version 3.0

Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Devon Kristiansen & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS-PMA is a harmonized data collection of Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020, a high-frequency survey for the measurement of progress toward Family Planning 2020 goals. It consists of individual-level and facility-level microdata collected through household, female, and service delivery point surveys about family planning behaviors, water, sanitation, health, and reproductive health care provision in 11 countries of Africa and Asia.

IPUMS Health Surveys: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey: Version 1.1

Lynn A. Blewett, Julia A. Rivera Drew, Risa Griffin & Kari C.W. Williams
IPUMS MEPS is an NICHD-funded project designed to make Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component (MEPS-HC) data easier for researchers to use. MEPS-HC is an ongoing panel survey, started in 1996, that is produced by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). IPUMS MEPS Version 1.1 contains data and documentation for more than 1,000 annual person-level variables from the 1996-2017 full-year consolidated files. These variables are consistently named and coded over time within MEPS,...

IPUMS Demographic and Health Surveys: Version 7

Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Miriam King & Matthew Sobek
The IPUMS-DHS project harmonizes Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data and documentation for Africa, the Middle East and South Asia to facilitate comparative research across time and countries. The DHS are the main source of information on health in low- and middle-income countries. IPUMS-DHS is designed to facilitate analysis of DHS data across time and space. IPUMS-DHS adds value to the original DHS samples in the following ways: variables are coded consistently across countries and...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset
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  • Collection