31 Works

IPUMS-PMA: Version 4.0

Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Devon Kristiansen & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS-PMA is a harmonized data collection of Performance Monitoring for Action [formerly known as Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020], a high-frequency survey for the measurement of progress toward Family Planning 2020 goals. It consists of individual-level and facility-level microdata collected through household, female, and service delivery point surveys about family planning behaviors, water, sanitation, health, nutrition, and reproductive health care provision in 11 countries of Africa and Asia.

Unequally Insecure: Rising Black/White Disparities in Job Displacement, 1981-2017

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Social scientists have documented vast racial disparities in labor market outcomes such as hiring and firing decisions, compensation, and opportunities for occupational advancement. Yet little is known about the racial patterning of job displacement (permanent involuntary layoffs), a remarkably common labor market outcome. Using data from the Displaced Worker Survey, covering nearly four decades of displacements, 1981-2017, we provide the first systematic analysis of Black/white displacement disparities since the 1990s. We find that Black workers...

U.S. Racial Inequality May Be as Deadly as COVID-19

Elizabeth Wrigley-Field
The Covid-19 pandemic is causing a catastrophic increase in U.S. mortality. How does the scale of this pandemic compare to another U.S. catastrophe: racial inequality? Using demographic models, I estimate how many excess white deaths would raise U.S. white mortality to the bestever (lowest) U.S. Black level under alternative, plausible assumptions about the age patterning of excess mortality in 2020. I find that nearly 400,000 excess white deaths would be needed to equal the best...

A New Strategy for Linking Historical Censuses: A Case Study for the IPUMS Multigenerational Longitudinal Panel

Jonas Helgertz, Joseph R. Price, Jacob Wellington, Kelly Thompson, Steven Ruggles & Catherine R. Fitch
This paper presents a new probabilistic method of record linkage, developed using the U.S. full count censuses of 1900 and 1910 but applicable to a range of different sources of historical records. The method was designed to exploit a more comprehensive set of individual and contextual characteristics present in historical census data, aiming to obtain a machine learning algorithm that better distinguishes between multiple potential matches. Our results demonstrate that the method achieves a match...

IPUMS International Historical Geographic Information System

Steven Mason, Tracy A. Kugler, Jonathan Schroeder, David Van Riper & Steven Ruggles
The International Historical Geographic Information System (IHGIS) provides data tables from statistical publications of population and housing censuses and agricultural censuses from around the world. Topics covered vary by census. Population and housing censuses typically cover topics such as demographic characteristics, household structure, education, economic activity, migration, and physical characteristics of dwellings. Agricultural censuses typically cover topics such as type and size of farms, area and yield of various crops, number and type of livestock...

IPUMS IHGIS

The International Historical Geographic Information System (IHGIS) provides data tables from statistical publications of population and housing censuses and agricultural censuses from around the world. Topics covered vary by census. Population and housing censuses typically cover topics such as demographic characteristics, household structure, education, economic activity, migration, and physical characteristics of dwellings. Agricultural censuses typically cover topics such as type and size of farms, area and yield of various crops, number and type of livestock...

IPUMS USA - FSRDC: Version 2.0

Steven Ruggles, Erin Meyer, Sarah Flood, Catherine A. Fitch & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS harmonized decennial census data are now available in the Federal Statistical Research Data Centers (FSRDCs). FSRDCs provide necessary security for handling confidential data, allowing the Census Bureau to make non-public versions of decennial data available for research. The collection consists of over one billion person records and 400 million household records. In addition to the large size of the collection, these data are invaluable because the files provide far greater geographic detail than is...

IPUMS Linked Representative Samples, 1850-1930

Ronald Goeken & Steven Ruggles
The IPUMS Linked Representative Samples links records from the 1880 complete-count database to 1% samples of the 1850 to 1930 U.S. censuses of the population. Data samples have been produced for 7 pairs of years: 1850-1880, 1860-1880, 1870-1880, 1880-1900, 1880-1910, 1880-1920, and 1880-1930. Each of these contains three independent linked samples: one of men, one of women, and one of married couples. This final release of the database supersedes the preliminary version that was made...

IPUMS Multigenerational Longitudinal Panel: Version 1.0

Jonas Helgertz, Steven Ruggles, Warren John Robert, Fitch Catherine A., Ronald Goeken, Hacker J. David, Nelson Matt A., Price Joseph P., Roberts Evan & Sobek Matthew
The IPUMS Multigenerational Longitudinal Panel project links individuals' records between full count censuses from 1850 to 1940. IPUMS disseinates full count cens enumerations for nine census years from 1850 to 1940. These full count data, covering almost 700 million individual records, are the fruit of collaboration between IPUMS and world's two largest genealogical organizations --Ancestry.com and FamilySearch-- to leverage genealogical data for scientific purposes. Fll count data have opended the possibility of automated record linkages...

Building Research Infrastructure for Harmonized International Census Microdata

Matthew Sobek & Lara Cleveland
IPUMS International harmonizes and disseminates census microdata collected over multiple decades by roughly 100 countries. There is little commonality in the source material over time within countries and no consistency at all across countries. To manage this heterogeneity, IPUMS has developed an extensive data infrastructure driven by metadata. Researchers manage correspondence tables to assign disparate input codes into a common global classification scheme for each categorical variable. These selfdocumenting tables govern the data harmonization software...

Extending Current Population Survey Linkages: Obstacles and Solutions for Linking Monthly Data from 1976 to 1988

Sarah Flood, Renae Rodgers, Jose Pacas, Devon Kristiansen & Ben Klaas
The Current Population Survey (CPS) has been the nation’s primary source of information about employment and unemployment for decades. The data are widely used by social scientists and policy makers to study labor force participation, poverty, and other high-priority topics. An underutilized feature of the CPS is its short-run panel component. This paper discusses the unique challenges encountered when linking basic monthly data in the 1976-1988 period as well as linking the March basic monthly...

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Current Population Survey: Version 8.0

Sarah Flood, Miriam King, Renae Rodgers, Steven Ruggles & J. Robert Warren
IPUMS-CPS is dedicated to integrating and disseminating microdata from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly U.S. household survey conducted jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. IPUMS-CPS contains harmonized data from every Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) supplement from 1962 to the present and all other supplements from 1976 to present. In addition to the many of the variables included in census data (race and...

IPUMS Restricted Full Count Data: Version 2.0

Steven Ruggles, Catherine A. Fitch, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, J. David Hacker, Matt A. Nelson, Jose Pacas, Evan Roberts & Matthew Sobek
IPUMS USA makes freely available to researchers worldwide complete count U.S. Census microdata through 1940. This dataset includes over 650 million individual-level (1850-1940) and 7.5 million household-level records (1790-1840). The microdata represents the fruition of longstanding collaborations between IPUMS and the nation's two largest genealogical organizations —Ancestry.com and FamilySearch— to leverage genealogical data for scientific purposes. This microdata collection is possible due to the donations of an unprecedented scale of digitized census data by both...

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, International: Version 7.3

IPUMS-International is an effort to inventory, preserve, harmonize, and disseminate census microdata from around the world. The project has collected the world's largest archive of publicly available census samples. Historical census data are included in the collection, and the project has begun adding data from household and labor force surveys. All data are coded and documented consistently across countries and over time to facilitate comparative research. IPUMS-International makes these data available to qualified researchers free...

Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Current Population Survey: Version 7.0

Sarah Flood, Miriam King, Renae Rodgers, Steven Ruggles & J. Robert Warren
IPUMS-CPS is dedicated to integrating and disseminating microdata from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly U.S. household survey conducted jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. IPUMS-CPS contains harmonized data from every Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) supplement from 1962 to the present and all other supplements from 1976 to present. In addition to the many of the variables included in census data (race and...

U.S. Racial Inequality May Be as Deadly as COVID-19

Elizabeth Wrigley-Field
The Covid-19 pandemic is causing a catastrophic increase in U.S. mortality. How does the scale of this pandemic compare to another U.S. catastrophe: racial inequality? Using demographic models, I estimate how many excess white deaths would raise U.S. white mortality to the bestever (lowest) U.S. Black level under alternative, plausible assumptions about the age patterning of excess mortality in 2020. I find that nearly 400,000 excess white deaths would be needed to equal the best...

IPUMS USA: Version 10.0

Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas & Matthew Sobek

American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder: Version 2.8

Sandra L. Hofferth, Sarah M. Flood, Matthew Sobek & Daniel Backman
The American Time Use Survey Data Extract Builder (ATUS-X) is a part of IPUMS Time Use, dedicated to making time use data easier for researchers to use. The American Time Use Survey (ATUS) ATUS is an ongoing annual time diary study, started in 2003, that is funded by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and fielded by the U.S. Census Bureau. It provides detailed information about the activities in which respondents engage together with...

Across the Rural-Urban Universe: Two Continuous Indices of Urbanization for U.S. Census Microdata

Jonathan Schroeder & José Pacas
To distinguish urban and rural populations in the U.S., a common practice is to use one of the official federal classifications of metropolitan/non-metropolitan (i.e., metro/nonmetro) or urban/rural areas. These classifications are not identified in public use census microdata, which makes it difficult to investigate relationships between the urban/rural status of individuals and their demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, and living arrangements. The standard binary classifications are also coarse, and they each index a distinct dimension of...

User Beware: Concerning Findings from Recent U.S. Internal Revenue Service Migration Data

Jack DeWaard, Mathew Hauer, Elizabeth Fussell, Katherine J. Curtis, Stephan Whitaker, Kathryn McConnell, Kobie Price & David Egan-Robertson
The U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) makes publicly and freely available annual placebased and place-to-place migration data at the state and county levels. Among their many uses, the IRS migration data inform estimates of net-migration as part of the U.S. Census Bureau’s Population Estimates Program, which, in turn, are used for producing other annual statistics, survey design, business planning, community development programs, and federal funding allocations. In this Research Note, we document what appears to...

Early Fertility Decline in the United States: Tests of Alternative Hypotheses using New County-level and Individual-Level Census Data

Michael R. Haines, J. David Hacker & Matthew Jaremski
The U.S. fertility transition in the nineteenth century is unusual. Not only did it start from a very high fertility level and very early in the nation’s development, but it also took place long before the nation’s mortality transition, industrialization, and urbanization. This paper assembles new county-level, household-level, and individual-level data for census years 1800-1880 to evaluate different theories for the nineteenth-century American fertility transition. We construct county-level models of child-woman ratios in all census...

Analyzing the Demographic, Spatial, and Temporal Factors Influencing Social Contact Patterns in the U.S. and Implications for Infectious Disease Spread

Audrey Dorelien, Aparna Ramen & Isabella Swanson
We know diseases such as the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) are spread through social contact. Moreover, interventions to control social contacts such as stay-home orders are required to stop disease spread in pandemics for which vaccines have not yet been developed. However, existing data on social contact patterns in the United States (U.S.) is limited. Method: Consequently, we use American Time Use Survey data from 2003-2018 to describe and quantify the number and duration of...

National Historical Geographic Information System: Version 15.0

Steven Manson, Jonathan Schroeder, David Van Riper, Tracy Kugler & Steven Ruggles
The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) provides free online access to summary statistics and GIS boundary files for U.S. censuses and other nationwide surveys from 1790 through the present. GIS files include: counties and states since 1790, census tracts since 1910, metropolitan areas since 1950, place and county subdivision boundaries since 1980, place points since 1900, all standard census reporting areas since 1990, 200 and 2010 centers of population for four geographic levels, and...

Public Use Microdata Samples of the Slave Population of 1850-1860

Russell Menard, Trent Alexander, Jason Digman & J. David Hacker
The IPUMS 1850-1860 Slave Samples are a series of six samples taken from the 1850 and 1860 Censuses of Slave Inhabitants. In both 1850 and 1860, the United States census contained two population schedules. Schedule 1 enumerated details of the free population, while Schedule 2 enumerated details of the slave population. Samples from Schedule 1 of the 1850 and 1860 censuses are available at the main IPUMS site (https://usa.ipums.org/usa/). The Slave PUMS provides the first...

How do Populations Aggregate?

Dennis Feehan & Elizabeth Wrigley-Field
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between populations at different scales plays an important role in many demographic analyses. OBJECTIVE: We show that when a population can be partitioned into subgroups, the death rate for the entire population can be written as the weighted harmonic mean of the death rates in each subgroup, where the weights are given by the numbers of deaths in each subgroup. This decomposition can be generalized to other types of occurrence-exposure rate....

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