93 Works

Inter-Cohort Trends in Age-Specific Health Inequalities: A Test of the Theory of Fundamental Causes

John Robert Warren & Elaine M. Hernandez
Link and Phelan’s (1995; 1996) “Fundamental Causes” theory posits that social and economic inequalities in morbidity and mortality have persisted over historical time --- and will continue to persist --- because people with access to more social and economic resources are always better able to avoid health risks (even if the nature of those risks change over time). Despite the prominence of this theory and its inherent challenge to mainstream epidemiological, public health, and social...

Romantic Relationships from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

Ann Meier & Gina Allen
Theories on romantic relationship development posit a progression of involvement and intensity with age, relationship duration, and experience in romantic relationships. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests these propositions by considering relationship type and patterns of relationships over the course of adolescence and their influence on relationship formation in young adulthood. Findings confirm that relationships become more exclusive, dyadic, of longer duration, and more emotionally and sexually intimate over the...

The Effect of Child Work on Schooling: Evidence from Egypt

Ragui Assaad, Deborah Levison & Nadia Zibani
The negative correlation between children’s work and schooling is well-documented. However, the causal link between child labor and school attainment has not been well established in the literature. We show that work, broadly defined, substantially reduces schooling for both boys and girls. We present evidence that lower rates of school attendance for Egyptian girls are caused by a substantial burden of household work. While market work is a serious impediment to schooling for boys, a...

Living Arrangements of the Aged in Comparative Historical Perspective

Steven Ruggles
This paper exploits a vast collection of newly-available census data from 92 censuses of 29 countries around the world between 1850 and 2006. My goal is to begin to systematically assess cross-temporal and cross-national variation in the living arrangements of the aged. The family patterns of the aged are relevant to the European exceptionalism hypothesis. All things being equal, one would expect that populations with weak nuclear family systems and neolocal marriage would have a...

Children's Economic Well-Being During the Great Recession

Sheela Kennedy, Catherine A. Fitch & Matt A. Nelson
We use data from the Current Population Survey on parental employment, family poverty, and food security to examine the impact of the recession on child well-being during the 2007-2009 recession. We estimate changes in child poverty and food insecurity by family structure, parental education, and race/ethnicity. Our results, using data for the first two years of the recession, show that the impact of the recession was widespread. Changes in food security were larger than changes...

Making Full Use of the Longitudinal Design of the Current Population Survey: Methods for Linking Records across 16 Months

Julia A. Rivera Drew, Sarah Flood & John Robert Warren
Data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) are rarely analyzed in a way that takes advantage of the CPS’s longitudinal design. This is mainly because of the technical difficulties associated with linking CPS files across months. In this paper, we describe the method we are using to create unique identifiers for all CPS person and household records from 1979 onward. These identifiers—soon to be available along with CPS basic and supplemental data as part of...

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Nonwage Compensation

Joseph A. Ritter
Previous research has found that, after controlling for test scores, measured black-white wage gaps are small but unemployment gaps remain large. This paper complements this previous research by examining the incidence of employer-provided benefits from the same premarket perspective. However, marriage rates differ substantially by race, and the possibility of health-insurance coverage through a spouse’s employer therefore distorts how the distribution of benefits available in the market to an individual is expressed in the distribution...

Within-Occupation and Industry Sex, Race, and Educational Differences in Exposures to Workplace Hazards

Julia A. Rivera Drew & Carrie Henning-Smith
Background Potentially harmful workplace conditions have been linked to occupationally-related illness and injury, costing billions of dollars in health care and lost wages. This study compares workers in the same jobs to see whether demographic differences in exposures persist. Methods Data were from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models controlling for job assessed differences in three exposures: 1) skin contact with chemicals, 2) vapors, gas, dust, and fumes, and...

Water, Walls and Bicycles: Wealth Index Composition Using Census Microdata

Rodrigo Lovaton Davila, Aine Seitz McCarthy, Dorothy Gondwe, Phatta Kirdruang & Uttam Sharma
This research aims to develop a valid and consistent measure for socioeconomic status at the household level using census microdata from developing countries available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series - International (IPUMS-I), the world's largest census database. We use principal components analysis to compute a wealth index based on asset ownership, utilities, and dwelling characteristics. The validation strategies include comparing our proposed index with the widely used Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) wealth...

Gender Inequality in the Life Cycle: The Effect of Parenthood on the Division of Unpaid Work

Marc Ajenjo Cosp & Joan García Román
The aim of this paper is to test whether younger generations are more egalitarian or whether their more gender-balanced behaviour is due to factors associated with the life cycle. Data used in the analysis are from the two editions of the Spanish Time Use Surveys carried out in 2002-2003 and 2009-2010. The unit of analysis is the couple, and we measure the degree of equality within the couple using differences between the spouses in the...

Trends in Union Instability in the United States, 1980s-2010s

Steven Ruggles & Sheela Kennedy
We use data from the 1995, 2002, 2006-10, 2011-13 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to examine trends in cohabitation in the United States. By the 2000s, 45% of first unions dissolved within 5 years, a dramatic increased over previous decades. The percent of first marriages dissolving within 5 years remained unchanged about 20%, compared to just over half of cohabiting unions. Educational differences in marital dissolution increased through the 1990s, before...

Inequality of Opportunity in Adult Health in Colombia

Johanna Fajardo-Gonzalez
This paper measures inequality of opportunity in adult health in Colombia using the 2010 Living Standards and Social Mobility Survey, a rich dataset that provides unique information about individual childhood circumstances in that country. Dissimilarity and Gini-opportunity indexes are calculated to provide different measures of inequality of opportunity using a self-reported variable for health status. The Shapley-value decomposition is then used to estimate the contribution of circumstances such as parental education and household socioeconomic status...

Evaluating the Accuracy of Linked U. S. Census Data: A Household Linking Approach

Ronald Goeken, Yu Na Lee, Tom Lynch & Diana Magnuson
Despite the proliferation of published studies using linked decennial census records there has been little empirical work on the accuracy of the linked data. The primary reason, of course, is that you can never definitively state that two records taken from two distinct censuses represent the same person. Potential links are then classified as true or false according to rules or machine learning procedures. Estimating linkage rates is a straightforward exercise, but error rates can...

Immigration, Suburbia, and the Politics of Population in US Metropolitan Areas

Kyle Walker
Suburbs in the United States, traditionally represented as a homogenous domain of white, middle-class residents, are in the midst of unprecedented demographic change due to immigration. Suburban immigrant populations now outnumber and are growing faster than their counterparts in central cities. Many suburbs across the country have responded unfavorably to these demographic changes, however, pushing in some cases for the implementation of ordinances and other local policies specifically designed to exclude undocumented immigrants from their...

Harmonizing the 2010 and 2002 Census Occupation Coding Schemes

Kari C.W. Williams & Sarah M. Flood
The study of occupations has a long history in the social sciences. The United States Census Bureau creates and updates occupation codes based on the Standard Occupation Classification System to systematically identify similar jobs and classify them into occupations. Periodic updates to occupation codes are necessary for documenting emerging and disappearing occupations and appropriately reflecting the labor market. While these updates are important for capturing the changing jobs that are performed in the United States,...

Unequally Insecure: Rising Black/White Disparities in Job Displacement, 1981-2017

Elizabeth Wrigley-Field & Nathan Seltzer
Social scientists have documented vast racial disparities in labor market outcomes such as hiring and firing decisions, compensation, and opportunities for occupational advancement. Yet little is known about the racial patterning of job displacement (permanent involuntary layoffs), a remarkably common labor market outcome. Using data from the Displaced Worker Survey, covering nearly four decades of displacements, 1981-2017, we provide the first systematic analysis of Black/white displacement disparities. We find that Black workers were nearly always...

Opening the Front Door: Household Composition as a Link Between Asian American Identities and Histories

Ummul-Kiram Kathawalla & Carolyn A. Liebler

Unequally Insecure: Rising Black/White Disparities in Job Displacement, 1981-2017

Social scientists have documented vast racial disparities in labor market outcomes such as hiring and firing decisions, compensation, and opportunities for occupational advancement. Yet little is known about the racial patterning of job displacement (permanent involuntary layoffs), a remarkably common labor market outcome. Using data from the Displaced Worker Survey, covering nearly four decades of displacements, 1981-2017, we provide the first systematic analysis of Black/white displacement disparities since the 1990s. We find that Black workers...

U.S. Racial Inequality May Be as Deadly as COVID-19

Elizabeth Wrigley-Field
The Covid-19 pandemic is causing a catastrophic increase in U.S. mortality. How does the scale of this pandemic compare to another U.S. catastrophe: racial inequality? Using demographic models, I estimate how many excess white deaths would raise U.S. white mortality to the bestever (lowest) U.S. Black level under alternative, plausible assumptions about the age patterning of excess mortality in 2020. I find that nearly 400,000 excess white deaths would be needed to equal the best...

A New Strategy for Linking Historical Censuses: A Case Study for the IPUMS Multigenerational Longitudinal Panel

Jonas Helgertz, Joseph R. Price, Jacob Wellington, Kelly Thompson, Steven Ruggles & Catherine R. Fitch
This paper presents a new probabilistic method of record linkage, developed using the U.S. full count censuses of 1900 and 1910 but applicable to a range of different sources of historical records. The method was designed to exploit a more comprehensive set of individual and contextual characteristics present in historical census data, aiming to obtain a machine learning algorithm that better distinguishes between multiple potential matches. Our results demonstrate that the method achieves a match...

Did the Urban Mortality Penalty Disappear? Revisiting the Early Twentieth Century’s Urban-Rural Mortality Convergence

James Feigenbaum, Lauren Hoehn-Velasco & Elizabeth Wrigley-Field
Over the early twentieth-century, mortality converged between urban and rural areas. This convergence has been attributed to public health infrastructure investments in cities. In this study, we revisit this narrative using disaggregated city and rural mortality data. While our initial findings confirm the stylized narrative suggesting a negligible urban penalty by 1900, when we examine age-standardized mortality rates, we show that the urban mortality penalty persists until 1936. We attribute this pattern to the large...

High School Exit Examinations and State-Level Completion and GED Rates, 1973-2000

John Robert Warren, Krista N. Jenkins & Rachael B. Kulick
We investigate the extent to which high school exit examinations are associated with state-level high school completion rates in the United States. To do so, we estimate a series of state and year fixed effects models using a new measure of state-level high school completion rates and archival information about states’ high school exit examinations between 1973 and 2000. We find that high school exit examinations --- particularly more difficult examinations that have recently been...

Using Cyber-Resources to Build Databases for Social Science Research

Matthew Sobek, Monty Hindman & Steven Ruggles
The Integrated Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) is the premiere infrastructure project supported through the NSF Human and Social Dynamics Priority Area. Over the next four years, the IPUMS-International project will release data and metadata from approximately 150 censuses of 45 countries, totaling about a half-billion records and some 20,000 variables. Because of the unprecedented scale of this work, we have had to develop innovative cyber infrastructure for both data processing and dissemination. The source data...

The Development of Family Interrelationship Variables for International Census Data

Matthew Sobek & Sheela Kennedy
Population microdata are typically organized into households, but household relationships are often ambiguous for persons outside the nuclear family. To facilitate comparative research on families and households, the Minnesota Population Center has developed consistent "pointer" variables identifying each person's mother, father and spouse for the International Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS-International), a freely available database of 279 million person records from 44 countries. This paper documents the methodology used to identify the most likely...

Employment for Youth: A Growing Challenge for the Global Community

Ragui Assaad & Deborah Levison
Social and economic challenges facing young people today must be understood in terms of the complex interaction between unique demographic trends and specific economic contexts. There has been an unprecedented growth in the number of young people in the Global South in the past two decades, and these youth face situations where the forces of economic globalization interact with historically determined national and regional economic structures and policies. Although we will argue that unemployment is...

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