68 Works

Inter-Cohort Trends in Age-Specific Health Inequalities: A Test of the Theory of Fundamental Causes

John Robert Warren & Elaine M. Hernandez
Link and Phelan’s (1995; 1996) “Fundamental Causes” theory posits that social and economic inequalities in morbidity and mortality have persisted over historical time --- and will continue to persist --- because people with access to more social and economic resources are always better able to avoid health risks (even if the nature of those risks change over time). Despite the prominence of this theory and its inherent challenge to mainstream epidemiological, public health, and social...

Romantic Relationships from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

Ann Meier & Gina Allen
Theories on romantic relationship development posit a progression of involvement and intensity with age, relationship duration, and experience in romantic relationships. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests these propositions by considering relationship type and patterns of relationships over the course of adolescence and their influence on relationship formation in young adulthood. Findings confirm that relationships become more exclusive, dyadic, of longer duration, and more emotionally and sexually intimate over the...

The Effect of Child Work on Schooling: Evidence from Egypt

Ragui Assaad, Deborah Levison & Nadia Zibani
The negative correlation between children’s work and schooling is well-documented. However, the causal link between child labor and school attainment has not been well established in the literature. We show that work, broadly defined, substantially reduces schooling for both boys and girls. We present evidence that lower rates of school attendance for Egyptian girls are caused by a substantial burden of household work. While market work is a serious impediment to schooling for boys, a...

Living Arrangements of the Aged in Comparative Historical Perspective

Steven Ruggles
This paper exploits a vast collection of newly-available census data from 92 censuses of 29 countries around the world between 1850 and 2006. My goal is to begin to systematically assess cross-temporal and cross-national variation in the living arrangements of the aged. The family patterns of the aged are relevant to the European exceptionalism hypothesis. All things being equal, one would expect that populations with weak nuclear family systems and neolocal marriage would have a...

Children's Economic Well-Being During the Great Recession

Sheela Kennedy, Catherine A. Fitch & Matt A. Nelson
We use data from the Current Population Survey on parental employment, family poverty, and food security to examine the impact of the recession on child well-being during the 2007-2009 recession. We estimate changes in child poverty and food insecurity by family structure, parental education, and race/ethnicity. Our results, using data for the first two years of the recession, show that the impact of the recession was widespread. Changes in food security were larger than changes...

Making Full Use of the Longitudinal Design of the Current Population Survey: Methods for Linking Records across 16 Months

Julia A. Rivera Drew, Sarah Flood & John Robert Warren
Data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) are rarely analyzed in a way that takes advantage of the CPS’s longitudinal design. This is mainly because of the technical difficulties associated with linking CPS files across months. In this paper, we describe the method we are using to create unique identifiers for all CPS person and household records from 1979 onward. These identifiers—soon to be available along with CPS basic and supplemental data as part of...

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Nonwage Compensation

Joseph A. Ritter
Previous research has found that, after controlling for test scores, measured black-white wage gaps are small but unemployment gaps remain large. This paper complements this previous research by examining the incidence of employer-provided benefits from the same premarket perspective. However, marriage rates differ substantially by race, and the possibility of health-insurance coverage through a spouse’s employer therefore distorts how the distribution of benefits available in the market to an individual is expressed in the distribution...

Within-Occupation and Industry Sex, Race, and Educational Differences in Exposures to Workplace Hazards

Julia A. Rivera Drew & Carrie Henning-Smith
Background Potentially harmful workplace conditions have been linked to occupationally-related illness and injury, costing billions of dollars in health care and lost wages. This study compares workers in the same jobs to see whether demographic differences in exposures persist. Methods Data were from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models controlling for job assessed differences in three exposures: 1) skin contact with chemicals, 2) vapors, gas, dust, and fumes, and...

Water, Walls and Bicycles: Wealth Index Composition Using Census Microdata

Rodrigo Lovaton Davila, Aine Seitz McCarthy, Dorothy Gondwe, Phatta Kirdruang & Uttam Sharma
This research aims to develop a valid and consistent measure for socioeconomic status at the household level using census microdata from developing countries available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series - International (IPUMS-I), the world's largest census database. We use principal components analysis to compute a wealth index based on asset ownership, utilities, and dwelling characteristics. The validation strategies include comparing our proposed index with the widely used Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) wealth...

Gender Inequality in the Life Cycle: The Effect of Parenthood on the Division of Unpaid Work

Marc Ajenjo Cosp & Joan García Román
The aim of this paper is to test whether younger generations are more egalitarian or whether their more gender-balanced behaviour is due to factors associated with the life cycle. Data used in the analysis are from the two editions of the Spanish Time Use Surveys carried out in 2002-2003 and 2009-2010. The unit of analysis is the couple, and we measure the degree of equality within the couple using differences between the spouses in the...

Trends in Union Instability in the United States, 1980s-2010s

Steven Ruggles & Sheela Kennedy
We use data from the 1995, 2002, 2006-10, 2011-13 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to examine trends in cohabitation in the United States. By the 2000s, 45% of first unions dissolved within 5 years, a dramatic increased over previous decades. The percent of first marriages dissolving within 5 years remained unchanged about 20%, compared to just over half of cohabiting unions. Educational differences in marital dissolution increased through the 1990s, before...

Inequality of Opportunity in Adult Health in Colombia

Johanna Fajardo-Gonzalez
This paper measures inequality of opportunity in adult health in Colombia using the 2010 Living Standards and Social Mobility Survey, a rich dataset that provides unique information about individual childhood circumstances in that country. Dissimilarity and Gini-opportunity indexes are calculated to provide different measures of inequality of opportunity using a self-reported variable for health status. The Shapley-value decomposition is then used to estimate the contribution of circumstances such as parental education and household socioeconomic status...

Evaluating the Accuracy of Linked U. S. Census Data: A Household Linking Approach

Ronald Goeken, Yu Na Lee, Tom Lynch & Diana Magnuson
Despite the proliferation of published studies using linked decennial census records there has been little empirical work on the accuracy of the linked data. The primary reason, of course, is that you can never definitively state that two records taken from two distinct censuses represent the same person. Potential links are then classified as true or false according to rules or machine learning procedures. Estimating linkage rates is a straightforward exercise, but error rates can...

High School Exit Examinations and State-Level Completion and GED Rates, 1973-2000

John Robert Warren, Krista N. Jenkins & Rachael B. Kulick
We investigate the extent to which high school exit examinations are associated with state-level high school completion rates in the United States. To do so, we estimate a series of state and year fixed effects models using a new measure of state-level high school completion rates and archival information about states’ high school exit examinations between 1973 and 2000. We find that high school exit examinations --- particularly more difficult examinations that have recently been...

Using Cyber-Resources to Build Databases for Social Science Research

Matthew Sobek, Monty Hindman & Steven Ruggles
The Integrated Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) is the premiere infrastructure project supported through the NSF Human and Social Dynamics Priority Area. Over the next four years, the IPUMS-International project will release data and metadata from approximately 150 censuses of 45 countries, totaling about a half-billion records and some 20,000 variables. Because of the unprecedented scale of this work, we have had to develop innovative cyber infrastructure for both data processing and dissemination. The source data...

The Development of Family Interrelationship Variables for International Census Data

Matthew Sobek & Sheela Kennedy
Population microdata are typically organized into households, but household relationships are often ambiguous for persons outside the nuclear family. To facilitate comparative research on families and households, the Minnesota Population Center has developed consistent "pointer" variables identifying each person's mother, father and spouse for the International Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS-International), a freely available database of 279 million person records from 44 countries. This paper documents the methodology used to identify the most likely...

Employment for Youth: A Growing Challenge for the Global Community

Ragui Assaad & Deborah Levison
Social and economic challenges facing young people today must be understood in terms of the complex interaction between unique demographic trends and specific economic contexts. There has been an unprecedented growth in the number of young people in the Global South in the past two decades, and these youth face situations where the forces of economic globalization interact with historically determined national and regional economic structures and policies. Although we will argue that unemployment is...

Methodological Challenges in Studying the Impact of Domestic Violence on Children's Human Capital: An Application to Colombia

Ragui Assaad, Greta Friedemann-Sanchez & Deborah Levison
This paper examines the effects of intimate-partner violence (IPV) against the mother on the educational outcomes of her children ages 6-14. We explore the potential non-random selection of children into situations where they are exposed to IPV using non-parametric matching methods and parametric instrumental variables methods. The analyses of Colombia’s 2005 DHS (N= 21,827) indicate that mother’s exposure to IPV reduces children’s school attendance by 1.2 to 2.7 percentage points, depending on methodology, substantial when...

Re-Thinking the Two-Body Problem: The Segregation of Women into Geographically-Dispersed Occupation

Alan Benson
Research on the family cites the tendency for couples to relocate for husbands’ careers as evidence against the gender-neutrality of household economic decisions. I test whether the prioritization of husbands’ careers in mobility decisions is endogenous to men’s and women’s occupations. Consistent with this hypothesis, I find the tendency for households to relocate for husbands’ careers is better-explained by the segregation of women into geographically-dispersed occupations in advance of marriage rather than by the direct...

Is Timing Everything? Parental Unemployment and Children's Educational Attainment

Caren Arbeit
Drawing from research on parental unemployment, sibling differences and life course theories, I consider whether (and how) the timing of a parent’s job loss moderates the impact of the event on children’s educational attainment in adulthood. Life course and child development theories lead to a hypothesis that the timing of family events in each child’s life may lead to long-term differences in educational attainment. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I examine the educational...

The Sensitivity of the Intrinsic Estimator to Coding Schemes: A Comment on Yang, Schulhofer-Wohl, Fu, and Land

Liying Luo, James Hodges, Christopher Winship & Daniel Powers
The Intrinsic Estimator (IE) has been proposed to address the age-period-cohort problem and is believed by many to yield robust and reliable estimates. We, however, show that IE estimates are highly sensitive to one’s choice of coding scheme or model parameterization. We reanalyze data from published articles to demonstrate that estimation results using one coding scheme (e.g., the zero-to-sum coding) can be dramatically different from those obtained using a different coding scheme (e.g., reference group...

Is School the Best Route to Skills? Returns to Vocational School and Vocational Skills in Egypt

Caroline Krafft
Formal vocational schooling is expected by many to be the best route to job skills, to make young Egyptians highly employable and to generate substantial returns. This paper compares the returns to formal vocational secondary education and the returns to vocational skills acquired through other routes, such as apprenticeships, in Egypt. By using a unique panel data set that allows for a comparison of siblings, this paper estimates the impact of education and skills on...

Trends in Spouses' Shared Time in the United States, 1965-2012

Katie Genadek, Sarah M. Flood & Joan Garcia Roman
Despite major demographic changes over the past fifty years and strong evidence that time spent with a spouse is important for marriages, we know very little about how time with a spouse has changed, or not changed, in the United States. Using time use survey data from 1965-2012, we examine trends in couples’ shared time in the United States during a period of major changes in American marriages and families. We find that couples without...

Harmonized census geography and spatio-temporal analysis: Gender equality and empowerment of women in Africa

Sula Sarkar, Lara Cleveland, Majory Silisyene & Matthew Sobek
Changes in administrative boundaries pose major challenges for spatio-temporal population research. Researchers interested in change over time need to hold space constant to study contextual or spatial effects on behaviors and outcomes. Boundary changes risk polluting their analyses with artifacts that obscure real changes that may have occurred. This paper describes the method by which spatially consistent geographic units have been constructed in the IPUMS-International census data collection for several countries over a fifty year...

Using the Annual Social and Economic Supplement with Current Population Survey Panels

Sarah Flood & José Pacas
The Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) is the most widely used type of Current Population Survey (CPS) data because of its rich information on employment, unions, health insurance and taxes. Researchers typically use these data as repeated cross sections despite the longitudinal component of the CPS, which many researchers are unaware of and very few leverage. The IPUMS-CPS (https://cps.ipums.org) project at the University of Minnesota is undergoing a large-scale effort to unlock the enormous...

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