68 Works

Correlates and Consequences of American War Casualties in World War I

Evan Roberts & Alexandra Burda
Outside of international relations much of the scholarship on World War I has come from historians rather than social scientists. Thus, there has been little attention paid to extending our knowledge of the basic demographic facts of American involvement in World War I, and analysis of the social impact of the war on veterans and their communities. After knowing how many Americans died, demographers might ask how did they die, and how did mortality rates...

Implications of Differential Privacy for Census Bureau Data Dissemination

The Census Bureau has announced a new set of standards and methods for disclosure control in public use data products. The new approach, known as differential privacy, represents a radical departure from current practice. In its pure form, differential privacy techniques may make the release of useful microdata impossible and severely limit the utility of tabular small-area data. Adoption of differential privacy will have far-reaching consequences for research. It is possible—even likely—that scientists, planners, and...

Sibling Models of the Role of Job Characteristics in Mediating SES-Health Relationships

Jeanie E. Brand, John Robert Warren, Pascale Carayon & Peter Honnakker
We focus on physical and psychosocial job characteristics as mediators in the link between education, earnings, and occupational standing and self-assessed overall health, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health problems, and depression. From sociological research on the stratification of employment outcomes, we expect that people with less education also have lower earnings and lower levels of occupational standing, and have more physically and psychosocially demanding jobs. From the occupational stress, ergonomics, and job design literatures, we expect...

Intergenerational Coresidence in Developing Countries

Steven Ruggles & Misty Heggeness
We use newly-available census microdata from IPUMS-International to assess trends in intergenerational coresidence in 15 developing countries. Contrary to expectations, we find no general decline in intergenerational coresidence over the past several decades. There have been, however, significant changes in the configuration of intergenerational coresidence. Families in which the older generation is household head—a configuration consistent with traditional patriarchal forms in which the older generation retains authority—are becoming more common in most of the countries....

Youth Placed Out-of-Home for Behavioral Reasons: An Analysis of Characteristics, Type of Placements, and Length of Stay

Misty Heggeness & Elizabeth Davis
This study analyzes the experience of youth placed out-of-home by two local county departments, human services and corrections, in a large Midwestern metropolitan county. The study goals are to determine whether youth placed by each department have similar characteristics and to analyze the factors associated with type of placement and length of stay. We find that youth have similar characteristics and experiences regardless of which department places them. We conclude that county departments appear to...

The Whole Village Project: A Platform for Evaluating Rural Development Projects

Joseph A. Ritter, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Kari Hartwig, Susan James, Deborah Levison, Esther Ngadaya & Craig Packer
The Whole Village Project, a joint undertaking of Savannas Forever Tanzania (a Tanzanian NGO) and the University of Minnesota, offers a cost-effective platform for evaluation of development projects. Detailed baseline longitudinal data are collected in a large number of rural villages and can be shared among a large number of projects for evaluation or research. The baseline can be supplemented with project-specific modules. This model enables good quality evaluations for a wide range of development...

Drawing Statistical Inferences from International Census Data

Lara L. Cleveland, Michael Davern & Steven Ruggles
Although census microdata used by social scientists derive from complex samples, researchers commonly apply methods designed for simple random samples. Using full count census data from 4 countries, we evaluate the impact of sample design on standard error estimates of microdata samples from the IPUMS International. We compare replicate standard error estimates from the full count data to estimates from the 10% public use samples using 3 methods: subsample replicate, Taylor series linearization, and estimates...

Breaking up is Hard to Count: The Rise of Divorce and Cohabitation Instability in the United States

Sheela Kennedy & Steven Ruggles
This paper critically evaluates the available data on trends in divorce and the dissolution of cohabiting unions in the United States. We find that both vital statistics and retrospective survey data on divorce after 1990 underestimate recent marital instability. These flawed data led some analysts to conclude that divorce risk has been stable or declining for the past three decades. Using new data from the American Community Survey and controlling for changes in the composition...

Economic and Health Outcomes of Unpaid Caregiving: A Framework from the Health and Social Sciences

Greta Friedemann-Sánchez & Joan M. Griffin
Unpaid caregiving performed by family members for dependents is often overlooked in research and policies on development processes and outcomes. This article presents a framework for understanding the determinants and effects of caregiving for caregivers, organized into three levels: at the micro-level, individual care recipient and caregiver characteristics and resources; at the meso-level social norms, social support, and community resources; and at the macro-level, caregiver support policies. Drawing on existing evidence from developed and developing...

Comparisons of At-Home and Breadwinner Parents' Time Use: What matters most, gender or jobs?

Noelle Chesley & Sarah Flood
Explanations for gender difference often focus on relative differences in time and money connected to employment within couples and cultural (e.g. doing gender) arguments to pinpoint the mechanisms that lead to gender-based inequality. However, previous research indicates clear differences in how heterosexual couples allocate time to childcare, housework, and leisure, suggesting that time/money tradeoffs and cultural pressures may operate in different ways across different areas of time use. Further, research points to couples with atypical...

Mass Probation: Toward a More Robust Theory of State Variation in Punishment

Michelle Phelps
Scholarship on the expansion of the U.S. carceral state has primarily focused on imprisonment rates. Yet the majority of adults under formal criminal justice control are on probation, an ‘‘alternative’’ form of supervision. This article develops the concept of mass probation and builds a typology of state control regimes that theorizes both the scale and type of punishment states employ. Drawing on Bureau of Justice Statistics data from 1980 and 2010, I analyze whether mass...

Physical Well-Being and Ethnic Inequality in New Zealand Prisons, 1840-1975

Kris Inwood, Les Oxley & Evan Roberts
The British colonization of New Zealand after 1840 was marked by an unusual concern for incorporating the indigenous Maori population into the new society. But despite a continuing political rhetoric of protection and sovereignty Maori have historically had lower living standards and, since the 1920s, higher rates of incarceration than European-descended New Zealanders (Pakeha). In this paper we examine differences between Maori and Pakeha over 130 years using prison records. Aggregate data from the Ministry...

Family Matters: Development of new family interrelationship variables for US IPUMS data projects

Marina Mileo Gorsuch & Kari Charlotte Wigness Williams
In demographic datasets, researchers frequently want to identify how members of a household are related. In 1995, IPUMS constructed family interrelationship variables indicating the line numbers (or "location") of each person's co-resident parents and spouse. These variables enabled researchers to examine household and family structure in a new way, including attaching the characteristics of a person’s spouse or parents as new variables. However, the original IPUMS family interrelationship variables have become outdated because of changing...

Building a National Longitudinal Research Infrastructure

Steven Ruggles, Catherine Fitch & Matthew Sobek
This paper describes a new initiative to create and disseminate longitudinal data infrastructure for the United States based on the entire population enumerated between 1850 and 2020. The National Longitudinal Research Infrastructure (NLRI) aims to produce a foundational reference collection for demographic and health research. The availability of a massive collection of life histories of the U.S. population over 170 years will open new avenues for social and behavioral research, education, and policy-making. By disseminating...

Does Marital Quality Predict Togetherness? Couples’ Shared Time and Happiness During Encore Adulthood

Sarah M. Flood, Katie R. Genadek & Phyllis Moen
We use data from the 2009 and 2013 Supplements on Disability and Use of Time to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the relationship between marital quality and couples’ shared time and happiness in a new “encore adult” life course stage around the 50s, 60s, and 70s. Our research addresses a major limitation of previous research by considering how marital quality is associated with time with a spouse; we tap into the quality...

Internal Migration in the United States: A Comprehensive Comparative Assessment of the Consumer Credit Panel

Jack DeWaard, Janna E. Johnson & Stephan D. Whitaker
We introduce and provide the first comprehensive comparative assessment of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York Consumer Credit Panel (CCP) to demonstrate the utility and unique advantages of these data for research on internal migration in the United States. Relative to other data sources on U.S. internal migration, the CCP permits highly detailed cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of migration, both temporally and geographically. After introducing these data, we compare cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates of...

Redefining and Measuring Sexual Revolution, with an Example from the IPUMS Census Data 1880-2000

Nathanael T. Lauster
In this paper I redefine the concept of sexual revolution and suggest two new measurements for the process. I review prior definitions and measurements of sexual revolution. I redefine sexual revolution in response to a Victorian script linking the public statuses of marriage and childbearing to the privacy of sexual experience. I measure sexual revolution as resistance to this script. In particular, women break the link between sex, marriage, and childbearing, and make sexual behavior...

The Effect of Child Work on Schooling: Evidence from Egypt

Ragui Assaad, Deborah Levison & Nadia Zibani
The negative correlation between children’s work and schooling is well-documented. However, the causal link between child labor and school attainment has not been well established in the literature. We show that work, broadly defined, substantially reduces schooling for both boys and girls. We present evidence that lower rates of school attendance for Egyptian girls are caused by a substantial burden of household work. While market work is a serious impediment to schooling for boys, a...

Residential Segregation and Labor-Market Outcomes: The Importance of Race, Gender and Marital Status

Jenny B. Wahl
Whatever the reason, racial segregation in housing potentially affects employment and wage rates. My research suggests that any analysis of residential segregation and labor-market outcomes should account for gender and marital status as well as race and age. Correcting for selection bias in wage regressions is also important; neglecting to do so overestimates the racial wage gap. Among adults of all ages, segregation in housing appears to have the most deleterious effect upon single black...

Urban Form and Family-Engaged Active Leisure: Impact Assessment Using the Census Data and Nighttime Satelite Images

Yinglink Fan
This research examines whether urban form indicators are useful predictors of family-engaged active leisure among U.S. population. The study sample includes 23,759 adult respondents from the 2003-2008 American Time Use Survey who lived with family members in 326 metropolitan counties. Urban form is measured at the county level by two methods: one uses the remotely-sensed nighttime satellite imagery and generates scale-adjusted sprawl indices based upon per capita land consumption, and another uses the ground-based Census...

Racial Bias in Traffic Stops: Tests of a Unified Model of Stops and Searches

Joseph A. Ritter
This paper develops a model of traffic stops and subsequent searches in which police officers use information about the race of drivers to maximize a well defined objective. The model provides a behavioral foundation absent from Grogger and Ridgeway’s (2006) elegantly simple test and, by incorporating searches, adds two complementary tests. Using data collected during 2002 by the Minneapolis Police Department, the tests rule out (1) statistical discrimination, (2) taste-based discrimination by optimizing police officers,...

Time for Each Other: Work and Family Constraints among Couples

Sarah Flood & Katie Genadek
Spousal interaction is an important component of marital quality, but researchers know little about couples’ shared time. We investigate: 1) relationships between single vs. dual-earner status and time with one’s spouse, 2) family life stage differences in time with a spouse, and 3) individual well-being when with one’s spouse. We use data from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2010), including the 2010 Well-Being Module. We find that men in dual-earner arrangements spend less time with...

Big Microdata for Population Research

Steven Ruggles
This article describes an explosion in the availability of individual-level population data. By 2018, demographic researchers will have access to over two billion records of accessible microdata from over 100 countries, dating from 1703 to the present. Another two to four billion records will become available through restricted-access data enclaves. I argue that these new resources represent a new kind of data that will enable transformative research on demographic and economic change and the spatial...

Marriage, Family Systems, and Economic Opportunity in the United States Since 1850

Steven Ruggles
The decline of marriage over the past half century ranks among the most profound demographic transformations in American demographic history. This paper puts recent change into historical context by providing new estimates of long-run trends in marriage. I then describe change in the family economy and explore the impact of economic changes on marriage behavior. I conclude with a discussion of cultural and structural explanations for change and their implications for the future.

Stage Migration within and through Migration Systems: Implications for Population Recovery in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

Jack DeWaard, Katherine J. Curtis & Elizabeth Fussell
In this paper, we apply a migration systems perspective to understand how places affected by natural disasters recover their populations through in-migration when in-migration is delayed on account of post-disaster impediments (e.g., housing and property damage) in disaster-affected areas. Specifically, we consider and test the idea that post-disaster impediments spawn innovation in migration systems in the form of indirect, or "stage," migration flows toward and, over time, to disaster-affected areas through intermediary destinations. Taking as...

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