1,221 Works

Design and Synthesis of Novel High Temperature Materials

Christopher Kassner
Ongoing efforts to create more efficient gas turbine engines able to operate at temperatures above those feasible today have stimulated an interest in new high temperature materials and methods for making them. This dissertation investigates the synthesis of two candidates. The first is a silicon carbide foam with submicron pores made from a preceramic polymer via a space holder method. The second is a class of materials called refractory complex concentrated metal alloys (RCCA) with...

Single-Cell Microfluidic Separation and Analytical Platforms Based on Biophysical Phenotypes

Karina Torres Castro
The complex functional and structural organization of biosystems leads to a degree of heterogeneity of cellular phenotypes. To parse through this heterogeneity, there is the need for platforms for separation and analysis, with single-cell sensitivity, to associate biological function and disease with particular cellular markers. The current state-of-the-art method for this purpose is based on single-cell analysis by flow cytometry, after fluorescent staining for their characteristic cell surface proteins, which is then used to identify...

James Breckinridge, federalist politician in Jeffersonian Virginia

Roy Albert Lamb
A study of the Virginia Federalist Party from 1789-1824 and James Breckinridge's role in it.

Informative structures in complex networks

Ruizhong Miao
Networks or graphs represent the relationships or interactions among entities and provide valuable information about the underlying data generating systems. Network data can be observed alone or accompanied by other forms of data, and in both cases, network data can be effectively leveraged to learn the underlying structures of the data. In this thesis, we consider both cases. First, when only the network data alone are observed, an unanswered question in statistical network analysis is...

Partial Trace Ideals, The Conductor and Berger's Conjecture

Sarasij Maitra
The study of the vanishing of the torsion submodule of a finitely generated module M over a Noetherian ring R, has been a topic of high interest among algebraists. There exist quite a few open questions in specific setups, for example, the Huneke-Wiegand Conjecture, the Berger Conjecture, etc. This dissertation is aimed at providing a new approach to this torsion problem by introducing an invariant h(M) for any such module M over a one dimensional...

Nutrient Availability Alters Metabolism and Methods Use in the Malaria Parasite

Audrey Brown
This dissertation is focused on how metabolism of the malaria-causing parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, changes in response to stressful conditions and how these metabolic adjustments cause increased parasite tolerance to antimalarial drug treatment. There is intricate interplay between parasites and their environment as pathogens respond to nutrient availability, physical forces, and immune pressure. Mounting evidence indicates non-genetic, metabolic changes in response to these environmental factors can modulate pathogen sensitivity to drug treatment. Chapter 2 reviews, in...

Serving to Run: Veterans and the March to Elected Office

Joseph Amoroso
Military experience has long held political relevance. However, over the last 50 years, the share of veterans serving in public office has steadily declined. This trend and the simultaneous rise in polarization motivate efforts to recruit and elect more veteran candidates. Proponents argue that values and skills associated with military service are vital to improving government. Despite a historical tradition and these more recent appeals, few studies consider the effect of military experience on electoral...

Promoting Antibiotic Stewardship for UTIs in Skilled Nursing Facilities

Morgan McDowell
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can be hard to diagnose and treat in the resident who lives in a long-term care facility. Residents often do not have typical UTI symptoms, such as burning with urination or urinary hesitancy. UTIs can often mimic other conditions such as worsening dementia or even other infections, such as pneumonia. Asymptomatic bacteriuria without infection further complicates accurate diagnosis and can lead to unnecessary culture and use of antibiotics in this population....

Functional Data Methods for Understanding Human Physiological System Responses to Exercise

Nicholas Coronato
Physiological response to physical exercise through analysis of cardiopulmonary measurements has been shown to be predictive of a variety of diseases. Nonetheless, the clinical use of exercise testing remains limited because interpretation of test results requires experience and specialized training. Additionally, the type and duration of the exercise testing most effective for prediction of fitness and disease remains controversial. This research examines the use of advanced machine learning methods to understand physiological mechanisms and to...

Ritualized Hostilities in Territorial Disputes

Carl Pi-Cheng Huang
Why are some provocative acts between states with territorial disputes more escalatory than others? Territorial disputes are the most likely cause of war. To understand why a territorial dispute escalates, most existing work focuses on the characteristics of the disputing parties and the dispute itself. However, these are far from the only conditions that explain territorial dispute escalation. In response to this observation, I introduce a new theory that focuses on the actual interactions between...

Developing Teachers' Advocacy Skills for Multilingual Learners: An Examination of Advocacy in Simulated Environments and School Settings

William Fox
This dissertation is a researcher-practitioner response to questions related to the development of multilingual learner (ML) advocacy skills in teacher education settings, as well as questions related to the socially mediated discourse of ML advocacy that evolves over time and within situated learning settings. To advance the agenda of examining the discourse of ML advocacy, as well as how it unfolds in teaching settings, I conducted three studies. In manuscript #1, Dr. April Salerno and...

The Impact of Brine Generation on Marine Life through Seawater Desalination

Toni Ajala
My technical thesis is a design for a seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination in Chennai, India, using pretreatment, RO separation, and post-treatment methods to produce potable water. An inlet flow of 196 million liters daily (MLD) of saltwater results in 150 MLD of freshwater, which cuts half of Chennai's freshwater scarcity. Both physical and chemical impurities of seawater are eliminated using various filtration methods. Then, a two-stage RO process separates salt NaCl from the water....

2022 UVA Health Disparities Conference

Nadine Michel
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. stated that “Of all the forms of inequality, injustice in health is the most shocking and inhumane.” This conference was organized by passionate medical students who care deeply about the future of the American healthcare system and who are committed to addressing healthcare disparities throughout their careers. Today you will be hearing from faculty, resident physicians, community members, and medical students about their exceptional work in the domains of clinical...

Driver State Modeling through Multimodal Naturalistic Driving Data

Arash Tavakoli
Effective shared-autonomy requires a clear understanding of driver's behavior, which is governed by multiple psychophysiological and environmental variables. Disentangling this intricate web of interactions requires understanding the driver's state and behaviors in different real-world scenarios, naturalistically, and longitudinally. Naturalistic Driving Studies (NDS) have shown to be an effective approach to understanding the driver's state and behavior in real-world scenarios. However, due to the lack of technological and computing capabilities, former NDS only focused on vision-based...

Andy Warhol Fdn., Inc. v. Lynn Goldsmith et al, Brief Of Amici Curiae Library Futures Institute, The Software Preservation Network, The Everylibrary Institute, The American Library Association, The Association Of College And Research Libraries, And The Association Of Research Libraries In Support Of Neither Party

Brandon Butler, Kyle Courtney & Juliya Ziskina
The Court’s decision in this case may bear directly on the interests of visual artists who rely on existing works as raw material for their own creations, but it could also affect far more. As the Court considers how to decide this case in light of its deep and recently reaffirmed commitment to a robust fair use doctrine, it should keep in mind the substantial progress enabled by its past decisions. In particular, it should...

Examining Social Reinforcement Learning Biases in Social Anxiety

Miranda Beltzer
Although social connectedness is critical to health and wellbeing, the 12% of Americans who experience social anxiety disorder in their lifetime often avoid social situations, which can lead to pervasive impairments. Aberrant social reinforcement learning, or differences in learning from positive and negative social feedback, may underlie many of the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in social anxiety disorder. While reinforcement learning is well studied in other mental disorders and in the non-social domain, only...

Thesis Portfolio: Characterization of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Through Cell Death Pathway and Analysis; Examining Privacy and Consent in Contemporary Geonomics Data Collection and Usage

Aubrey Winger
My technical project is a computational project studying major cell death pathways and their relationship to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a lifelong autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects women and minority groups. SLE typically manifests as chronic inflammation. In this project, four major cell death pathways were examined in the context of SLE: apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis, and ferroptosis. Each pathway has previously been characterized by the generation of a unique “gene signature”. Thus, the...

The European Union, the United States, and Trade: Metaphorical Climate Change, Not Bad Weather

Mark Schwartz
US and EU trade relations exhibit a set of chronic and secularly unsustainable imbalances, in which new Schumpeterian leading sectors and catch‐up growth create growing tension in the asymmetrical and somewhat hierarchical US–EU rela‐ tionship. These imbalances exhibit two distinct cycles interrupted by a clear structural break in the 1970s and an emerging cycle after the 2008–2010 crises. Each cycle has seen rising US current account or trade deficits with Europe provoke some financial or...

War, Public Opinion, and Leader Credibility

Laura White
Are all leaders equally able to rally public support for a military intervention? It seems intuitive that the answer is no; however, the literature on war and public opinion focuses primarily on factors like a conflict’s purpose, likely success, and partisan divisiveness to explain variations in public support. Leaders possess significant influence over the framing of public debate and are incentivized to sell proposed interventions as both important to the nation and as a feasible...

What is team science?

Dean Evasius
Team science is a collaborative approach to addressing complex scientific questions. It engages the strengths of scientists from different fields, backgrounds, and expertise, often to solve the grand challenges of society. The iTHRIV Team Science Learning Shorts is a series of interviews with team science practitioners exploring the fundamentals of team science, team science participation, and the institutional supports. Learning Shorts are brief, digestible online educational offerings organized around a specific topic.

Review of Visualizations in NCSES Publications based on Population Surveys

Vicki Lancaster
This is the first of a series of three papers, the first two provide comments and suggestions on the visualizations appearing in NCSES publications and provide alternative ways to display the data; the third is a survey of the visualizations in other federal government statistical agency publications. This first paper reviews the visualizations in NCSES publications that report on surveys administered to an entire population. In these publications there is no need to display the...

Review of Visualizations in Federal Statistical Agency Publications

Vicki Lancaster & Samantha Cohen
This is the third of a series of three papers, the first two provide comments and suggestions on the visualizations appearing in NCSES publications and provide alternative ways to display the data; the third is a survey of the visualizations in other federal government statistical agency publications. This third paper is a survey of the visualizations in other federal government statistical agency publications. The majority of federal statistical agency visualizations are a form of bar...

Review of Burning Glass Job-ad Data

Vicki Lancaster
Posting and searching online job-ads is ubiquitous in the U.S. labor market for both employers and job seekers. Job seekers who search online job-ads are much more likely to find work and find work faster than those who do not (Faberman & Kudlyak, 2016). In addition, the job-ads posted by employers on corporate websites and online job boards provide a source of opportunity data that has opened up new avenues for research. This technical document...

Updated NIH Biosketch and Other Support Requirements

Lauren Armstrong
As of May 31, 2021, the NIH updated the requirement for Biosketches and Other Support documentation. This Learning Shot details those changes and new requirements in a short 10 min video presentation. This Learning Shot was developed and presented by Lauren Armstrong, Assistant Director in Office of Grants & Contracts, University of Virginia School of Medicine.

Podcast: Open Science

James Nataro
This podcast details what open science is and why it is important.

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