12,071 Works

Structural and Functional Studies of Ancient RNA-binding Sm Proteins

Peter Randolph
The Sm superfamily’s central role in RNA processing and regulation, combined with their existence in all three domains, makes them a model system for exploring RNA processing evolution. Sm-mediated interaction between RNAs play vital roles in important pathways such as virulence, quorum sensing, cell death and aging, and mRNA splicing. The largest gap in our knowledge of the Sm superfamily is in the archaeal branch. Many archaeal systems can provide invaluable knowledge about their more...

Virginia Dual Enrollment Policy as the Transformation of Intentions: A Multiple Case Study

Andrew Renshaw
Once a privilege of the few, American colleges and universities now serve millions of students each year. One of the most pressing trends accompanying expanded access is the rising cost of this higher education. As more students are educated at greater costs, the total financial burden, shared by institutions and private individuals alike, becomes more oppressive. One way that states have already begun to address funding issues within public higher education is to help students...

Time in the Odes of Horace

Courtney Evans
This dissertation explores Horace’s engagement with time in the Odes, both as a concept and as a poetic device. It begins with a study of the language Horace uses to describe and characterize time, the words which form the basic building blocks with which Horace constructs the temporal world of his poetry. From there the scope widens to consider Horace’s employment of seasonal imagery and how he uses seasons as similes, seasons within similes, and...

Black/White Biracial Student Socialization in Higher Education

Willie Williams
This mixed-methods research is an investigation into whether an environment of integration and involvement exists for biracial students in higher education and particularly, to what degree such an environment of socialization was created by a the university targeted in this study. More exactly, does the university under study here, as an organization, provide the awareness and support required for biracial students to negotiate normative contexts and experience involvement and integration—are Black/white biracial students socialized at...

Intimate Partner Violence and Failure to Thrive in Children Less than Two Years of Age

Pamela Kimeto
Abstract Background: An increasing body of evidence shows links between women’s Intimate Partner Violence victimization (IPV) and poor child health outcomes. Few studies in the U.S have examined the relationship between IPV and its impact on the physical growth of children less than two years of age. Identifying growth failures in children exposed to violence and managing them promptly is crucial during this age because any growth deviation from the normal may pose a risk...

Critical Care Nurses' Perceptions about Palliative Care and Moral Distress: Implications for Practice

Alexander Wolf
Background: As the need for palliative care in the intensive care unit becomes increasingly recognized, it is unknown how gaps and variations in palliative care education and utilization are associated with the moral distress of critical care nurses. Purpose: To examine critical care nurses’ perceived knowledge of palliative care, examine their recent experiences of moral distress, and explore how these variables may be related. Design: Quantitative, descriptive study design. Methods: Survey questionnaires were distributed to...

An Optical Study of Dwarf Galaxies with Narrow HI Linewidths: Dark Matter and the Tully-Fisher Relation at the Faint End.

Richard Joseph Patterson
CCD B− and I−band surface photometry is presented for a sample of 51 dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies. The main selection criterion was their extremely narrow HI line widths (∆V20 < 100 km s-1), chosen in order to examine the Tully–Fisher (TF) relation between linewidth and absolute magnitude at the low–luminosity end. In this regime, a substantial fraction of the linewidth is attributable to turbulent rather than rotational motion. Therefore, it is not surprising...

The Guerbet Coupling of Ethanol into Butanol over Calcium Hydroxyapatite Catalysts

Sabra Hanspal
Drawbacks posed by corn-based bioethanol as a gasoline fuel additive have called attention to its catalytic transformation into a higher-value fuel or chemical, such as butanol. The catalytic conversion of bio-derived ethanol to butanol occurs via the so-called Guerbet reaction – a multi-step sequence of reactions that ultimately couples two short-chain alcohols to produce a longer chain saturated alcohol. Recent studies have demonstrated unusually high activity and high butanol selectivity during the Guerbet coupling of...

Understanding Early Childhood Educators' Well-Being: Links to Professional Development, Teacher-Child Interactions and Child Outcomes

Amy Roberts
This dissertation presents three independent studies that all focus on understanding early childhood educators’ well-being. The first study identifies characteristics of pre-kindergarten teachers that relate to teachers’ responsiveness to the professional development program MyTeachingPartner. Teachers’ anxiety and readiness to change related to multiple indicators of responsiveness. Teachers who were more anxious and less ready to change were less responsive to the intervention. The second study examines how Head Start teachers’ depressive symptoms relate to their...

Student Alignment with Expert Knowledge as a Predictor of Problem Solving Performance

Sheila Mitchell
Engineering education is intended to equip students with such skills as analysis and design that are necessary for success in the engineering profession even while universities are under pressure to increase the depth, breadth, and scope of material taught to students. Without drastically changing the structure of the engineering degree, teaching with efficiency is an option that ensures students receive the necessary relevant instruction. To ensure that instruction is cognitively appropriate, a first step is...

Liver Macrophage Polarization and Function in Hepatotropic Viral Infection

Adam Labonte
The liver maintains an immunologically tolerant environment as a result of continuous exposure to food and bacterial constituents from the digestive tract. Hepatotropic pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) can take advantage of this niche and establish lifelong chronic infections causing hepatic fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Macrophages (Mϕ) play a critical role in regulation of immune responses to hepatic infection and regeneration of tissue. However, the factors crucial for Mϕ in limiting hepatic inflammation...

Inducible Control of Tissue-specific Gene Expression in Xenopus tropicalis

Jeiwook Chae
Vertebrate eye formation has been extensively studied in amphibian embryos as a model for embryonic induction. More recently, a number of putative regulatory genes involved in eye determination have been identified. However, their defined functions during eye formation remain to be examined. Combining recent technological breakthroughs, e.g. a procedure for frog transgenesis and a new genetic system, Xenopus tropicalis, I have performed a series of experiments to test the function of these genes in eye...

Deconstructing the Foundations of Learning in Early Childhood: Complementing Theory with Methodology

Helyn Kim
This dissertation presents three independent studies that are linked in their focus on exploring efforts to deconstruct the foundations of learning in early childhood. The first study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a teacher-reported measure of children’s classroom motor skills. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the three-factor structure, and each of the three subscales of the MSRS, Classroom Fine Motor, Shapes and Letters, and Body Awareness,...

Middle School Emergent Bilingual and Bilingual Students' Perspectives on U.S. History

Paul Yoder
This dissertation study investigated the historical perspectives of middle school emergent bilingual and bilingual students. The participants in this qualitative multiple case study included eleven seventh grade students from two middle schools in a Virginia school district. Data collection occurred over the course of one semester and included classroom observations, instructional document collection, and individual and focus group interviews. Data analysis revealed that the participants reflected the official U.S. history curriculum when describing their own...

Measuring Polarization Using a Bose-Einstein Condensate Interferometer

Benjamin Deissler
An atom interferometer using Bose - Einstein condensates has been implemented and is used to measure the dynamic polarizability of 87Rb. An off - resonant standing - wave laser beam is used to manipulate the motion of atomic wavepackets in order to implement splitting and reflection operations. It is demonstrated that these operations can be performed with near unity fidelity. Interferometer times of up to 72 ms as well as arm separations of up to...

Growth Rate Modeling Techniques for Longitudinal Data

Zhiyong Zhang
Generally, at least two features are needed to characterize a growth process fully at any time point: the level of growth and the rate of growth. The level of growth represents the current status of a process at a given time point and can be viewed as a static measure of that process. The rate of growth represents how fast the level of the process is changing at that time point and can be viewed...

Development of Microfluidic Devices for Genetic Analysis: Continuous Flow Infrared-mediated PCR (cfIR-PCR) and Microwave Thermal Cycling Systems

Kyudam Oh
The work in this dissertation constitutes four research efforts focused on the development of microfluidic instrumentation and methodology for advanced genetic analysis in polymeric microdevices. Laser ablation has been mainly employed to construct polymeric devices as a result of rapid prototyping and ease of microfabrication. As part of a genetic analyzer, two types of heating systems were investigated to drive thermocycling in these polymeric microdevices: infrared and microwave, ultimately capable of multiple and high-throughput reactions...

The Open Science Framework: Improving Science by Making It Open and Accessible

Jeffrey Robert Spies
There currently exists a gap between scientific values and scientific practices. This gap is strongly tied to the current incentive structure that rewards publication over accurate science. Other problems associated with this gap include reconstructing exploratory narratives as confirmatory, the file drawer effect, an overall lack of archiving and sharing, and a singular contribution model - publication - through which credit is obtained. A solution to these problems is increased disclosure, transparency, and openness. The...

Designing Progress: Race, Gender and Modernism in Early 20th-Century America

Jacqueline Taylor
In the late 1930s Amaza Lee Meredith (1895-1984), an African American woman from Lynchburg, Virginia, designed and built a modern style house for herself and her female companion on the grounds of Virginia State College. Between the wars, she studied at Columbia Teacher’s College in New York, receiving a BA in Fine Art in 1930, and an MA in Art Education in 1935, under a curriculum designed by Arthur Wesley Dow. Remarkably, unlike many African...

The religious development of the Negro in Virginia

Joseph Brummell Earnest

The status of public secondary education for negroes in Virginia, 1920-21

Frank Astor

THE \"STRATEGIC\" PRIMARY VOTER: Understanding Vote Choice in U.S. Presidential Nominating Contests

Gar Robert Culbert
Arguments made by political elites and academics alike supporting various proposals to reform the presidential nominating process in the United States depend on certain normative claims and assumptions pertaining to how voters think about the decisions they make in these contests. Such recommendations need to be rooted in a better understanding of how voters make up their minds about whom to vote for: Are voters sincere (voting with their “true” preferences), are they sophisticated (giving...

Regulation of the Fancd2 Phosphorylation and Complex Formation for DNA Repair

Gang Zhi
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic life-threatening disorder [1] featuring progressive bone marrow failure, birth defects, leukemia, increased incidence of solid tumors, spontaneous chromosomal instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross linking reagents[2, 3]. FA reveals itself usually in the first decade of life in the form of marrow failure, with extreme fatigue, frequent infections and spontaneous bleeding due to failed production of blood[4]. The carrier frequency for FA is 1/300-1/600, making FA the most common...

Characterizing the Performance of the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization

Nicole E. Gugliucci
With better telescopes and observing techniques, astronomers have entered the age of precision observational cosmology. The processes of formation of the first stars and galaxies is still a mystery to us, however, as our optical and infrared telescopes are not yet powerful enough to see back to these events that occurred over 12 billion years ago in what has been coined the epoch of reionization, or EoR. The search for this signal has pushed radio...

Social satire in the works of Manuel Bretón de los Herreros

Silvia Novo (Blankenship) Chaskin
Manuel Bretón de los Herreros was the most popular writer of comedies of the Spanish nineteenth century. He was second only to Lope de Vega as the most prolific playwright in Spanish letters. His literary production is remarkable: one hundred and three original plays sixty-two translations of foreign comedies, ten adaptations of Golden Age dramas, innumerable poems, a number of artículos de costumbres, and some linguistic studies. The contribution of this author to the literature...

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