12,071 Works

Relevance Feedback for Web Searches

Pavankumar Chatlani
The growing importance of the World Wide Web in modern daily life and its consequent rapid growth has resulted in the problem of how to effectively manage and query this vast information source. Currently, the primary means of navigating the Web is through the use of search engines such as AltaVista and Yahoo!. These search services tend to return many irrelevant results to user queries. This is because users often submit queries of poor quality...

The Technology, Culture, and Communication Toolkit

Terry Funkhouser
In recent years, the University of Virginia’s Computer Science Department, in a joint project with the Alderman Library and the Division of Technology, Culture, and Communication (TCC), have developed a digital library system for the submission of undergraduate engineering theses. This Electronic Theses and Dissertation (ETD) system allows students to submit their final documents in Portable Document Format (PDF) over the Internet for archival storage with automatic cataloging on the Virgo database system. To take...

The motivations behind charitable giving (STS research paper)

Rupali Vohra
For the seventh year in a row, the most prosperous country in the world based on education, health, personal freedom, and financial health is Norway. Even in the most prosperous country, charitable organizations exist to assist those in need. Indeed, even in Norway, the unemployment rate is at 6.3%, which is more than the 5.5% unemployment rate in the United States.Philanthropy is a global necessity; there are people all over the world who cannot afford...

An Interactive, Web-Based Testing System for an Introductory Computer Science Course

James A. Shamas
In order to simplify the process of testing the hundreds of students enrolled in the University of Virginia's Introduction to Computer Science class, I created an interactive, Web-based testing system using Macromedia Authorware. While Web-based education has become widespread over the past four or five years, on-line testing remains minimal. This system will be used beginning with the Fall, 1998 CS 101 class, where it will be used as a teaching tool as well as...

The Role of Electronic and Vibrational Scattering on Thermal Transport Across Multiple Interfaces in Nanostructures

Ashutosh Giri
Rapid miniaturization and faster working speeds in electronic devices has led to challenges in their thermal mitigation. However, thermal conductivity of the constituent materials in the nano-devices, even though a very critical parameter in their design, is mostly overlooked and the thermal performance of the device is mainly controlled through packaging techniques. However, it would be advantageous for a diverse spectrum of technologies, which ultimately fail due to either high density of interfaces or due...

Star Formation and Nuclear Activity in Local Starburst Galaxies: A Near-Infrared Perspective

Henry Borish
Near-Infrared spectroscopy provides a useful probe for viewing embedded nuclear activity in intrinsically dusty sources such as Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs). In addition, near-infrared spectroscopy is an essential tool for examining the late time evolution of type IIn supernovae as their ejected material cools through temperatures of a few thousand Kelvins. In this dissertation, I present observations and analysis of two distinct star-formation driven extragalactic phenomena: a luminous type IIn supernova and the nuclear activity...

Growing Children Out of Doors: California's Open-Air Schools and Children's Health, 1907-1917

Camille Shamble
This dissertation, the first detailed study of American open-air schools, examines the relationship between landscape architecture and building design, considering how these innovative educational facilities simultaneously reflected and shaped Progressive-Era reforms related to children’s health and welfare—as well as more problematic American discourses surrounding nationalism and racism. This project focuses on the peak of the movement in California, from 1907-1917, in which single-story modern school structures with integrated gardens and permeable pavilion classrooms transformed the...

Experimental and Modeling Study of Thermoelectric Materials for High Figure of Merit

Long Chen
Half-Heusler alloys RNiSn (R=Hf, Zr, Ti) were made by arc melting under argon atmosphere followed by the consolidation using Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. The thermoelectric properties were measured from room temperature up to 1170 K. The temperature dependences of thermoelectric properties and structures were investigated. A frequency-dependent differential effective medium (DEM) model was developed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity. This model was also applied to calculate the thermal conductivity of nanostructured Si and...

The Relationship of School Poverty and Suspension Rates: Finding Ways to Reduce Suspension Through Prevention Programming and School Bonding

Erica Shirley
What is the relationship between school poverty and school suspension rates and to what extent do prevention programming and school bonding lower the suspension risk for students in high poverty schools? The present study examined the association between school level poverty and suspension rates in addition to investigating whether prevention programming and school bonding factors moderate the relationship between school-level poverty and suspension rates using a sample of 289 public high schools from the Virginia...

Prescriptive literature and courtship ritual in the upper South, 1800-1855

Elizabeth Ann Fritschle
The paper uses examples of young women's experiences during 1800-1855 in the Upper South to analyze courtship rituals.

Limbs on the levee : steamboat explosions and the origins of federal public welfare regulation, 1817-1852

John Kennedy Brown
The paper examines the failures of the American steamboats and government regulations of the industry from 1817 to 1852.

The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party through August, 1964

Anne Cooke Romaine
The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, formally constituted in April, 1964, was formed as a political organization by disfranchised black Mississippians. The roots of the MFDP are contained in the organizing efforts and philosophy of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) which began voter registration activity in Mississippi in 1961. The first objective of the MFDP was recognition by the National Democratic Party. The MFDP members felt that recognition, as the official Democratic Party in Mississippi,...

\"Love makes memory eternal\" : the United Daughters of the Confederacy in Richmond, Virginia 1897-1930

Nancy Angelyn Parrott
The paper focuses on the role of the United Daughters of the Confederacy.

Louis I. Jaffe : a southern liberal's critique of lynching

James Patrick, Jr. Dvorak
This essay will examine Jaffe's analysis of lynching-particularly his perception of its causes and potential cures-- and determine how that analysis was shaped by his racial liberalism.

The polity and the party system : Conneticut and New Hampshire, 1840-1876

Lex Renda
The dissertation analyzes the relationship between electoral movement and legislative policymaking in Connecticut and New Hampshire between 1840 and 1876. There are several sophisticated treatments of party strategies, voting behavior, an d specific areas of policy development in American history, yet there has been little examination of their interrelationship, particularly on the state level. Even less has been done to demonstrate the ways in which federal and state level policy issues interacted and affected party...

Rape, law, and society in the progressive era

Lydia Jane Ellen Reid
This paper is a beginning exploration into the history of rape in early twentieth century America. The topic is difficult to research and interpret since rape only becomes apparent when the perpetrator is brought to trial. As a result, the most accessible information concerning this crime exists within legal periodicals, statute books, and appellate court records. This essay focuses on two aspects of this history--legal reform discourse and the legal system's treatment of the crime....

Emergency mothers : the women of Charlottesville confront massive resistance

Andrew Benjamin Lewis
The paper examines the role and impact of the women of the PCES.

Robert Gilmor, Jr. (1774-1848) : Baltimore collector and American art patron

Lance Lee Humphries
Robert Gilmor, Jr. (1774-1848) of Baltimore, Maryland was of one the most significant art collectors and patrons in the United States before 1850. Based on archival research, Volume I explores a number of issues regarding Gilmor as collector. Volume II provides a detailed catalogue of the nearly 400 paintings in his collection, numerous miniatures, drawings, prints, sculptures, and antiquities. A merchant, Gilmor matured in an international environment of great wealth, including art collectors and patrons....

Managing white supremacy : politics and culture in Virginia, 1919-1939

John Douglas Smith
Throughout the 1920s, white elites in Virginia found it increasingly difficult to manage white supremacy. For decades, state-level political leaders, business executives, and newspaper editors had advocated a paternalistic vision of race relations. They supported segregation and disfranchisement laws in the name of order and stability, but also pledged to protect the commonwealth's black citizens from the excesses of the white masses. During the twenties, however, faced with internal contradictions inherent in the commonwealth's social...

Congress, business, and the postwar labor movement : rethinking the McClellan Committee, its origins, and its consequences

Jean-Claude André
The aim of this Thesis is to contextualize the McClellan Committee. It is based on the premise that labor has experienced a postwar decline, and it argues that the McClellan Committee was both a product of labor's weakened postwar state, and a catalyst in perpetuating that weakened state. Specifically, it claims that the McClellan hearings led to the passage of the anathematic Landrum-Griffin Act and the development of a negative public image for organized labor....

Fighting traffic : the dawn of the motor age in the American city

Peter Daniel Norton
By 1930 American cities were committed to accommodating motor vehicles. Yet just ten years earlier, most experts and city people agreed that motorists would have to conform to the city as they found it. The change was only in part an evolutionary adaptation to the growing use of automobiles. Those interested in a future for cars in cities did not believe it would come unassisted. They fought for it. The obstacles were formidable. The leading...

'If They Could Change the World' : Children,Childhood, and African-American Civil Rights Politics

Rebecca Lyn de Schweinitz
This dissertation examines the role of young people in the civil rights movement and the ways that changing ideas about childhood have influenced the place of blacks in American society and the struggle for racial equality. Chapter 1 explores how ideas about childhood helped legitimize American slavery, influenced the movements to defend and eradicate it, and limited Reconstruction efforts. Chapter 2 examines how race leaders used ideas about childhood to prove the respectability of the...

The Story of the Virginia Central Railroad, 1850-1860

Elizabeth Dabney Coleman
A study of the antebellum Virginia railroads.

If Not for the Ladies: Ladies' Memorial Associations and the Making of the Lost Cause

Caroline Elizabeth Janney-Lucas
"If Not for the Ladies" restores white women's place in the historical narrative by exploring their role as the creators and purveyors of Confederate tradition in the post Civil War South. Through a study of the Ladies' Memorial Associations of Virginia from 1861-1914, it examines how and why middle- and upper-class southern white women came to shape the public rituals of Confederate memory, Reconstruction, and reconciliation. Members of LMAs not only helped to create and...

The Proslavery Argument in the Early Republic, 1790-1830

Larry Robert Morrison
According to the standard view of Southern history, there was a strong antislavery tradition in the South until the 1830's when the militant abolitionist attacks upon not only slavery but also slaveholders forced Southerners into a defense of their peculiar institution. This view over­ looks, however, the strong proslavery tradition that also existed in the South from 1790 to 1830. This study is an attempt to re-examine this period and consider the proslavery arguments that...

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