1,302 Works

Implicit Health Associations Across the Adult Lifespan

Alexandra Werntz
Objective: Explicit reports of one’s health self-concept (e.g., how would you rate your overall health?) are commonly used in research and clinical practice. These measures predict important health outcomes, but rely on conscious introspection so may not fully capture the different components of health self-concept (e.g., less consciously controlled components) that relate to actual health. The current study examined the health-Implicit Association Test (health-IAT), and how it may add to our prediction of health from...

Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Software Preservation

Brandon Butler, Patricia Aufderheide, Peter Jaszi & Krista Cox
The Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Software Preservation helps ensure that the subjects, products, and tools of scholarship will continue to be accessible despite evolving technology. The code expresses a consensus view of how fair use—the legal doctrine allowing the use of copyrighted materials without permission from the copyright holder under certain circumstances—applies to core, recurring situations in software preservation. Fair use has become an increasingly vital tool for permitting cultural heritage...

Exploiting Nanocrystal Properties to Enhance Metal Halide Perovskite Optoelectronic Devices

Matthew Alpert
Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) are one of the most-researched semiconductors today. They have become the fastest improving solar cell material yet discovered, with efficiencies starting at 3.8% in 2009 and growing to over 25% today. These materials are unique because they are able to combine a low-cost solution-processing capability with excellent optoelectronic properties that are comparable to, and often even surpass, traditional semiconductor single crystals. As such, halide perovskites are being explore for many optoelectrical...

Patterns of Concentration in Montessori Preschools: Investigating Concentration When Children are Free to Choose Their Own Work

Ian Becker
One key characteristic of Montessori classrooms is that children freely choose to engage with whatever they are most interested in. A common concern about Montessori is thus whether students will concentrate on their work throughout the day, and even whether they will actually choose to work at all. We completed 115 observations of children in Montessori Primary classrooms (ages 3-6), coding for children’s concentration and activity across two to three hours in the morning. The...

The Social Ontology of Sexuality

Matthew Andler
The cornerstone of my dissertation is the sexual orientation/identity distinction. Drawing on an analogy with the sex/gender distinction, in the first chapter, I propose the following slogan: sexual orientation is natural, while sexual identity is the social meaning of sexual orientation. And I argue that we ought to endorse the orientation/identity distinction on account of its indispensability to normative explanations regarding LGBTQ+ resistance and oppression. As a case study, I argue that we need the...

American Zen Hospital Chaplaincy: The Practice of Mindful Spiritual Care

Michael Nilon
This dissertation examines the origins of American Zen hospital chaplaincy in the US through an ethnographic study of Upaya Institute and Zen Center (UZC). I explore how the founder of UZC, Joan Halifax, ecologizes, medicalizes, and neurobiologizes mindfulness in American Zen spiritual care via a close engagement with her writings. I connect Halifax's teachings with the work of her students in incorporating mindfulness into spiritual caregiving as a moral practice in clinical settings. I pay...

Regulation of Cytokinesis in Neural Stem Cells During Cerebral Cortex Development

Katrina McNeely
Mammalian brains have an expanded cerebral cortex, which is essential for many of the processes we consider to be innately human, like consciousness and language. The cerebral cortex contains six layers of neurons that are all derived from the expansion of neural stem cells (NSCs). The neurons within these layers are polarized cells with unique morphologies. The fate decisions that occur during cell division of NSCs to produce specific neurons for each layer is still...

\"Open Water\"

Caleb Nolen
A collection of poems

Genomic Stress in Human Neurodevelopment: The Role of p53

Nadine Michel
The human cortex consists of upwards of 80-90 billion neurons. The vast majority of these neurons are born during early brain development during a short time frame in which progenitors rapidly proliferate, differentiate, and migrate to the appropriate cortical layer. Mouse models of cortical development have revealed that DNA damage occurs at high rates during this time period, and DNA damage repair is essential for normal development. One of the required repair pathways is non-homologous...

The Development of the Parenting Alliance Inventory

John Floyd Brunner
The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of the parenting alliance developed by R.R. Abidin (1966). The Parenting Alliance Inventory (Abidin, 1986) assesses the degree to which a husband and wife feel good about their parenting skills as well as the parenting skills of their partner, and the degree to which each spouse supports the other in the task of parenting. The Parenting Alliance Inventory is based on the psychoanalytic principles outlined...

Attachment and the Self at Age Six

Jude Anne Cassidy
There is wide-spread agreement among psychologists that the self develops not in a vacuum but rather through social interaction, particularly interaction with the child's primary caregivers. Bowlby has emphasized the attachment component of the child-parent relationships as being of central importance. This study investigated the relation between quality of attachment to mother and self-esteem in six-year-olds. Subjects were 52 white, middle-class, six-year-olds, and all but two were from two-parent families (26 boys). Children and their...

God-Optional Religion in Twentieth-Century America: Quakers, Unitarians, Reconstructionist Jews, and the Crisis Over Theism, 1920-1965

Isaac May
This dissertation reframes the relationship between the American religious left and secularization. It explores how three liberal religious groups, Quakers, Unitarians, and Reconstructionist Jews, embraced new ideas of God, either seeing God as impersonal or allowing members to espouse atheist and agnostic views. It documents the continuance of these religious communities even after the theological rationales that originally brought them together disappeared. In these groups, communal identity became focused on humanitarian service and political commitments,...

The Importance of Being Insular: Tristan da Cunha and the British Imperial World

Christopher Maternowski
This dissertation considers the tiny South Atlantic island of Tristan da Cunha and its role within the British Empire. It asks why Britain has retained this peripheral possession for more than two centuries, as well as why this island has loomed large in the minds of colonial bureaucrats, metropolitan dreamers, missionaries, medical researchers, and naturalists. Hailed as the most remote inhabited island in the world, Tristan da Cunha presents a degree of insularity that few...

Swimming Underwater: Effects of Body/Fin-Fin Interaction, Gait Selection and Propulsor Shape Optimization on High-Performance Bio-Inspired Propulsion

Pan Han
Aquatic animals have been considered skillful at performing fast, efficient and agile locomotion because of their deformable fins, body/fin-fin interactions, diverse swimming gaits, as well as energy extraction from their surroundings. Despite the compelling progress that has been made in the last two decades to understand aquatic locomotion, our knowledge of the underlying high-performance mechanisms is still incomplete. Furthermore, achieving similar levels of hydrodynamic performance as biological system in engineering design has proven to be...

Experimental Study of the 3He and Neutron Spin Structures at Low Q2 and the Upgrade of the JLab Polarized 3He Target

Nguyen Ton
In the scattering process off a nuclear or nucleon target, the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule for real photons ($Q^2$=0 where $Q^2\equiv -q^2$ with $q$ the photon's 4-momentum) relates static properties of the target particle's ground state to dynamic properties of all its excited states. On the other side of the $Q^2$ spectrum, the Bjorken sum rule holds in the Bjorken limit $Q^2 \rightarrow \infty$. Bjorken sum rule relates the final structure functions of the proton...

Mass Spectrometry Characterization of Post-Translational Modifications on the Arabidopsis Growth Regulator Protein RGA

Ellen Speers
The world population has increased several-fold in the past century, but food production has increased at a greater rate, thanks to scientific developments like the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution included the development of sturdy semi-dwarf crops, which were able to bear heavy heads of grain without falling over in wind or rain. These plants were later found to have mutations in the gibberellin signaling pathway, including DELLA proteins. These master regulator proteins integrate multiple...

Program Evaluation of a Pilot Occupational Stress Program

Shaina Escribano-Miranda
Occupational stress is detrimental to physical and psychological health. Poor wellbeing of healthcare providers is associated with adverse patient outcomes and decreased provider retention. The purpose of this scholarly project was to conduct a program evaluation of Be Wise, a pilot program intended to impact occupational stress in a unit within an academic medical center. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention framework for program evaluation in public health guided this scholarly project. Results of...

Alterations in Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Consumption and Functional Hyperemia in Renal Hypertensive Rats

Permsak Komwatana
Results from in situ hemodynamic studies in the hindlimbs of renal hypertensive rats (two-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertension) and age-matched normotensive rats show that both resting hindlimb blood flow and resting hindlimb 02 consumption are significantly lower (P < .OS) in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group by about 40 to 50 %. Contraction of hindlimb muscles reduces vascular resistance of hindlimb and increases both hindlimb blood flow and hindlimb 02 consumption in a...

Norms for Lesbian and Gay Parenthood as a Function of Gender and Sexual Orientation

Doyle Tate
Decisions about whether or not to become a parent are significant parts of normative human development. Many studies have shown that married heterosexual couples are expected to become parents, and that many social pressures enforce this norm. For same-sex couples, however, much less is known about social norms and attitudes surrounding parenthood. This study examined current injunctive norms (i.e. how much people think that others should perform an action) and descriptive norms (i.e. the degree...

The Word and the Bit: Information and 20th/21st Century Literature

Jordan Buysse
The Word and the Bit considers the aesthetics of information, and the information of aesthetics, in 20th and 21st century literature. By examining literary texts centered on the relationship between language and information, I argue for the importance of modes of reading that negotiate computational and instrumental uses of language--its transformation to and from ‘mere data’. In doing so, I deploy recent developments in computational methods for literary study--in particular text analysis--in order to reflect...

Little Ivy Creek Bridge Replacement Using Accelerated Bridge Construction Methods; Identity Crisis: The Disconnect Between Transformational Leadership and Engineering Leadership

Beau Gutridge
Leadership and Accelerated Bridge Construction Project Management The United States’ aging bridge infrastructure is in desperate need of replacement or rehabilitation. Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) methods have been developed to help minimize disruption to the travelling public, a typical consequence of conventional methods. ABC methods truly excel when combined with strong, quality project leadership. My technical project produced a bridge replacement design using ABC methods. My role on this project was as project manager. My...

The Air Guitar: Developing a Cost-Effective Digital Guitar; Saved by the Dell: A Study of Technology Based Music Classes

Jacob Holton
“All we have to decide is what to do with the time that is given us.” (Tolkien, 2006, p. 19). This quote from The Lord of the Rings captures the essence of pursuing an engineering degree at the University of Virginia. From “Intro to Engineering” and declaring a major to late nights at Thornton Hall and eventually completing your respective STS research and capstone projects, the University generates a myriad of challenges and opportunities for...

Identyti: Digital Storage of Personal Identification Documents; Myth & Morality: Using Fiction to Inspire Moral Courage in Engineers

Samantha Kostelni
The relationship between my two topics, “Myth & Morality: Using Fiction to Inspire Moral Courage in Engineers” and “Identyti: Digital Storage of Personal Identification Documents” is more of a journey than a direct connection. I originally planned to do my STS research on gaining customer trust because I saw this as a potential issue for my technical project due to recent data collection scandals. That little seed of doubt grew into a cactus that sat...

Quantifying the Current Transportation Landscapes in Charlottesville to Evaluate the Effects of Shared Dockless E-Scooters on Mobility; When Life gives you Limes: Integrating New Modes of Mobility into Existing Transportation Landscapes

Cameron Lloyd
Trends in urban growth, transportation innovation, and new modes of micromobility (the class of mobility that can occupy bike lanes), leads to numerous questions about how cities can incorporate new technologies in an equitable, safe, and productive way. The technical project and sociotechnical research both focus on the questions of access to mobility and integrating new forms of mobility into an existing transportation environment. The technical project seeks to bring new quantitative understandings of the...

Enriching a Computer Engineering Degree Through Media Studies

Connor Roos
Mass media is transferred and consumed in a variety of ways on a variety of different devices. My STS and technical projects focused on media, however, my technical project was solely for radio communications. At the same time, my STS research paper involved integrating all forms of media into the STS department to improve the study of technology. My technical project was to create a software-defined radio that was programmed to work as a vector-network...

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