1,301 Works

Quasi-Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control: Design and Validation

Zheng Chen
The emergence of Connected Automated Vehicle (CAV) has enabled a variety of Cooperative Automated Driving applications. Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), as the prevailing longitudinal control method for CAV allowing automated vehicle platooning, is claimed to bring enormous improvements in transportation efficiency and safety. However, such benefits of CACC cannot be easily unleashed in mixed traffic where CAVs are interacting with human-driven non-CAVs. The existing CACC cannot work effectively in mixed traffic environment due to...

Bispans in Quasicategories

Bogdan Krstic
A Tambara functor is an algebraic system indexed by the subgroups of a fixed finite group, possessing additive and multiplicative inductions along subgroup inclusions as well as a twisted distributive law between the two inductions. These arise in equivariant homotopy theory and group representation theory, with examples coming from representation rings, generalized character rings, equivariant \(K\)-theory, Burnside rings, group cohomology, algebraic \(K\)-theory, and homotopy groups of equivariant \(E_{\infty}\)-ring spectra. Tambara functors are defined using bispan...

Simulations and Designs for Atom Interferometry Experiments

Zhe Luo
A Sagnac interferometer using Bose-Einstein condensates for rotation sensing is implemented in a harmonic trapping magnetic potential. The trapped cold atom cloud is manipulated by standing wave laser beams to produce two reciprocal interferometers. We designed a new atom chip for confining cold atoms based on double layer spiral copper wires with different chirality. The chip provides pure gradient magnetic field and requires less currents and power consumption. We also designed a testing chamber for...

Trajectories of the heart rate characteristics index, a physiomarker of sepsis in premature infants, predict Neonatal ICU mortality

Amanda M Zimmet, Brynne A Sullivan, J Randall Moorman, Douglas E Lake & Sarah J Ratcliffe
This repository contains the dataset and code for the manuscript: Zimmet AM, Sullivan BA, Moorman JR, Lake DE, Ratcliffe SJ. Trajectories of the heart rate characteristics index, a physiomarker of sepsis in premature infants, predict Neonatal ICU mortality. JRSM Cardiovascular Disease 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/2048004020945142. ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Trajectories of physiomarkers over time can be useful to define phenotypes of disease progression and as predictors of clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify phenotypes of...

Growth Mindset and Belonging: The Importance of Perceived Context

Christopher Williams
Postsecondary STEM programs pose unique challenges to students’ belonging. Experimental evidence suggests that holding a growth mindset can increase belonging, though the mechanisms are not fully understood. We theorize that the relationship occurs as a function of students’ perceptions of their environment. Mindsets may influence belonging by shaping students’ beliefs about instructors’ and peers’ mindsets, which then globalize to feelings of school trust and belonging. In two studies (total N = 3,040), we developed and...

The Relationship Between Access to Mental Health Resources and Use of Preferred Effective Mental Health Treatment

Alexandra Silverman
Objective: Certain marginalized groups do not have equal access to mental health resources. This study examined whether variables related to access to mental health resources (racial-ethnic group membership, education level, number of community-level treatment providers, and facilities) were associated with current mental health treatment use; and, whether they moderated the likelihood that individuals would receive their preferred effective treatment. Methods: In a preregistered (osf.io/z28wr) online study, 5,626 individuals completed a mental health history form and...

(Somewhat) Willing & Able: The Use of Caveats in Coalition Warfare

Derek Ray
During the course of coalition warfare, many states choose to limit the actions and types of missions their troop contributions can perform through the use of caveats. This self-limiting behavior is bemoaned for how it complicates military planning and reduces the military efficiency of the coalition as a whole; yet countries continue to impose self-limiting caveats on their troops. This dissertation demonstrates that the origin of caveats in coalition warfare lies in the differences between...

Probability of Secondary Crash Occurrence on Freeways with the Use of Private-Sector Speed Data

Noah Goodall
A percentage of crashes on freeways are suspected to be caused in part by congestion or distraction from earlier incidents. Identification and prevention of these secondary crashes are major goals of transportation agencies, yet the characteristics of secondary crashes—in particular the probability of their occurrence—are poorly understood. Many secondary crashes occur when a vehicle encounters nonrecurring congestion, yet previous efforts to identify incident queues and their secondary crashes have relied either on deterministic queuing theory...

An Exploration of Districts' Principal Hiring Practices

Amy Reynolds
Principal hiring is among the most consequential functions of school districts given the critical role of the principal for student and school outcomes. Districts have the potential to improve principal pipelines and to counteract some of the harmful effects of inequitable principal sorting patterns through their principal hiring practices. Yet little is known about how most districts hire principals. This exploratory study used a survey-based research design to begin to fill this gap in the...

Implicit Health Associations Across the Adult Lifespan

Alexandra Werntz
Objective: Explicit reports of one’s health self-concept (e.g., how would you rate your overall health?) are commonly used in research and clinical practice. These measures predict important health outcomes, but rely on conscious introspection so may not fully capture the different components of health self-concept (e.g., less consciously controlled components) that relate to actual health. The current study examined the health-Implicit Association Test (health-IAT), and how it may add to our prediction of health from...

Beyond Technological Literacy Open Data as Active Democratic Engagement?

Caitlin Wylie, Kathryn Neeley & Sean Ferguson
We consider scholarly conversations about digital citizenship as a continuation of centuries of discourse about citizenship, democracy, and technoscience. Conceptually, we critique portrayals of citizenship from Jeffersonian polities to technical literacy to critical health and environmental justice movements. This analysis forms the basis for proposing an alternative, normative theoretical perspective on citizens’ engagement in governance: the ethics of care. This framework enables a move from citizens’ civic engagement as motivated by duty and risk perception...

Glass-boxing science: Laboratory work on display in museums

Caitlin Wylie
Museum displays tend to black-box science, by displaying scientific facts without explanations of how those facts were made. A recent trend in exhibit design upends this omission by putting scientists to work in glass-walled laboratories, just a window away from visitors. How is science being conceived, portrayed, and performed in glass-walled laboratories? Interviews and participant observation in several “fishbowl” paleontology laboratories reveal that glass walls alter lab workers’ typical tasks and behavior. Despite glass-walled labs’...

‘The artist’s piece is already in the stone’: Constructing creativity in paleontology laboratories

Caitlin Wylie
Laboratory technicians are typically portrayed as manual workers following routine procedures to produce scientific data. However, technicians in vertebrate paleontology laboratories often describe their work in terms of creativity and artistry. Fossil specimens undergo extensive preparation – including rock removal, damage repair, and reconstruction of missing parts – to become accessible to researchers. Technicians called fossil preparators choose, apply, and sometimes invent these preparation methods. They have no formal training, no standard protocols, and few...

Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Software Preservation

Brandon Butler, Patricia Aufderheide, Peter Jaszi & Krista Cox
The Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Software Preservation helps ensure that the subjects, products, and tools of scholarship will continue to be accessible despite evolving technology. The code expresses a consensus view of how fair use—the legal doctrine allowing the use of copyrighted materials without permission from the copyright holder under certain circumstances—applies to core, recurring situations in software preservation. Fair use has become an increasingly vital tool for permitting cultural heritage...

The Twin Cities Innovation Ecosystem: A Study of Stakeholder Perspectives

Rider Foley
In the early 1980s, the Office of Naval Research sponsored a novel research project led by Andrew Van de Ven and colleagues (1986) called The Minnesota Innovation Research Program. That study investigated thirteen subject areas from microelectronics and medical products to multi-hospital systems and programs to commercialize outer space, all of which were underway in the state. Van de Ven and colleagues (1989) issued an edited volume that shared the lessons learned from that longitudinal...

Supporting Teaching with Primary Sources

Krystal Appiah & Brenda Gunn
In June 2019, the University of Virginia Library joined Ithaka S+R’s study, “Supporting Teaching with Primary Sources,” which examines the pedagogical practices of humanities and social sciences faculty at participating institutions who teach with primary sources at the undergraduate level. By participating in this study, the investigators from the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library seek to better understand our faculty’s use of primary sources in the classroom in order that our staff may...

The mechanistic study of C-H and H-H bond activation and C-C coupling reactions at the interface of homogeneous catalysis and heterogeneous catalysis

Zhongwen Luo
Commodity chemicals are produced annually on a large-scale via various catalyst-based technologies. Most of the industrially relevant catalytic processes operate based on molecular transition metal complexes, solid acid catalysts, or supported transition metal solid catalysts. The shale gas revolution has provided an abundance of methane and ethane, and has shifted the chemical industry's focus from the long-standing crude oil-based raw materials supply to a cost-effective natural gas components-based source. As a result, new catalytic processes...

God-Optional Religion in Twentieth-Century America: Quakers, Unitarians, Reconstructionist Jews, and the Crisis Over Theism, 1920-1965

Isaac May
This dissertation reframes the relationship between the American religious left and secularization. It explores how three liberal religious groups, Quakers, Unitarians, and Reconstructionist Jews, embraced new ideas of God, either seeing God as impersonal or allowing members to espouse atheist and agnostic views. It documents the continuance of these religious communities even after the theological rationales that originally brought them together disappeared. In these groups, communal identity became focused on humanitarian service and political commitments,...

The Importance of Being Insular: Tristan da Cunha and the British Imperial World

Christopher Maternowski
This dissertation considers the tiny South Atlantic island of Tristan da Cunha and its role within the British Empire. It asks why Britain has retained this peripheral possession for more than two centuries, as well as why this island has loomed large in the minds of colonial bureaucrats, metropolitan dreamers, missionaries, medical researchers, and naturalists. Hailed as the most remote inhabited island in the world, Tristan da Cunha presents a degree of insularity that few...

Swimming Underwater: Effects of Body/Fin-Fin Interaction, Gait Selection and Propulsor Shape Optimization on High-Performance Bio-Inspired Propulsion

Pan Han
Aquatic animals have been considered skillful at performing fast, efficient and agile locomotion because of their deformable fins, body/fin-fin interactions, diverse swimming gaits, as well as energy extraction from their surroundings. Despite the compelling progress that has been made in the last two decades to understand aquatic locomotion, our knowledge of the underlying high-performance mechanisms is still incomplete. Furthermore, achieving similar levels of hydrodynamic performance as biological system in engineering design has proven to be...

The Virginia CubeSat Constellation Mission; A Co-Development of Society and CubeSats

Conner Hsiang
The topic that links the STS research paper to the technical report is the focus on CubeSat technology. Since the CubeSat revolution in 1999, the use of this originally niche piece of technology has greatly grown within the scientific community and higher education, and has permeated into the commercial sector and lower education as well. From an engineering standpoint, the reasons behind the explosive growth of the CubeSat are attributed to its simplicity in design,...

ACQ-SYNC: A Novel Framework for Increasing Workplace Productivity and Collaboration for Contract Acquisition Personnel; Analyzing Charlottesville Transit: Investigating Modes of Public Transit in Charlottesville and Their Effect on Resident Mobility

Kelechi I. Nwanevu
From the late 1990s leading into the start of the current decade, a large portion of the developed world experienced a technological revolution of sorts. The number of ways to increase productivity and entertainment multiplied yearly in the form of new devices. However, despite the stark uptick in technological innovation and its presence in the common household and office, society arrived at a point where it became fair to question the usefulness of all these...

Development of a Novel Lumbar Spinal Phantom for Rivanna Medical; Designing for the Sexes: Accounting for Differences Between Males and Females in Hip Replacement Technology Research and Development and Patient Outcomes

Victoria Parodi
My technical work and my STS research are connected primarily through the idea of medical devices, specifically highlighting the research and development (R&D) stage of technological innovation. Medical devices are any instrument, machine, apparatus, implant, or any similar article, that is intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, and they are central to both my technical project and my research paper. However, the two works differ in the way that they...

BLUESPAWN: An Open-Source, Active Defense & Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) Software for Windows-based Systems; Understanding the Rise of Cyberweapons as a Key Element of National Security

Jacob Smith
Over the past several decades, the world has dramatically shifted to where almost everything has some “connected” component. This digital revolution has fundamentally changed nearly every aspect of society. These changes though, have brought on their own, new sets of challenges. In particular, as we increasingly rely on computers in both our business and personal lives, that dependence presents a potential vulnerability. Criminals will abuse this situation to simply make easy money, but nation-states carrying...

ChoreoNova Ticketing System; Improving the Psychiatric Diagnostic Procedure With Machine Learning

Jared Taylor
In completion of my Senior Thesis, I have completed both a technical thesis and an STS research paper. For my technical portion, I developed a ticketing website for a local dance non-profit. For the STS portion, this thesis explores the various machine learning approaches to decreasing misdiagnoses in the mental health field. Both projects were developed during my Fourth Year at the University of Virginia, and even though they were not chosen for the thesis...

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