48 Works

Systems of Systems Perspectives on Critical Infrastructure Management in Response to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

Yacov Haimes & Eugene Stakhiv
Since 1980, the U.S. has experienced 151 weather disasters with damages exceeding one billion dollars each. With changing climate and development patterns and the severity and frequency of extreme weather events increasing, the United States must address the vulnerability of its complex critical infrastructure, which is largely a fragmented system of systems. The nation’s critical infrastructure provides the essential services that underpin the American way of life. A vast array of interdependent infrastructure and information...

\"But Who Looks East at Sunset?\" Gerard Manley Hopkins and Scientific Perception

Bethany Nowviskie
This essay examines published scientific writings of Gerard Manley Hopkins in the context of his poetry, journal-writing, and correspondence on subjective and objective cognition, or “unusually observant” perception. Hopkins’ response to special atmospheric conditions (the after-effects of the Krakatoa eruption, and the phenomenon of rayons du crepuscule at sunset) is considered in a matrix of Victorian scientific amateurism, conflicting views on observational agency and perspective, and precision in poetic and descriptive language. Key to valid...

Should Place of Death be Added to the Index of Disparities Between Black and White Breast Cancer Patients?

Sarah Marion
Background: Compared to their white counterparts, Black women with breast cancer suffer from earlier onset of diagnosis, higher mortality rates, and are at risk of racial bias from healthcare providers and treatment plans that do not align with the standard of care. Place of death can be considered a metric for high quality end-of-life care as hospital death is associated with both physical and emotional distress. Given Black patients’ particular vulnerability, the purpose of this...

Racial Bias in the Assessment of Pain among HBCU Trainees

Kovosh Dastan
The objectives of our study were to assess whether U.S. medical students and resident physicians (collectively referred to as trainees) at Historically Black Colleges & Universities (HBCUs) – particularly Howard University College of Medicine and Howard University Hospital – displayed any racial bias in the assessment of pain or treatment recommendations; if they held any false beliefs about biological differences between Black and White people; if any of their existing biases and/or beliefs were the...

COVID Vaccine Education Efforts and Uptake Among People Experiencing Homelessness in Charlottesville

Jessica Lin
Objectives: Address questions about COVID-19 vaccination among people experiencing homelessness in Charlottesville before initial vaccine distribution. Methods: As an extension of existing homeless health outreach services, a team of seven University of Virginia medical students and one undergraduate student offered ten educational outreach sessions at three local shelters over two weeks to promote COVID-19 vaccination events and combat vaccine hesitancy and misinformation. These outreach sessions involved 1-2 students approaching shelter guests to discuss their COVID-19...

Telemedicine at the Charlottesville Free Clinic - A Qualitative Study of a Natural Experiment

Rachel O'Brien
At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, essentially all in-person visits at the Charlottesville Free Clinic (CFC) were stopped and telemedicine appointments were offered instead, a care delivery model never before implemented at CFC. This complete switch offered an opportunity to study the impact of telemedicine on the care of the unique free clinic population. We conducted a small-scale qualitative study through semi-structured interviews with both CFC patients and providers. Our study aimed to explore...

Neighborhood-Based Community Health Workers: Addressing Charlottesville’s Healthcare Access Inequity

Betsy Peyton
Introduction to WellAWARE, a neighborhood-based Community Health Worker program that aims to help medically underserved communities overcome obstacles to good health and healthcare. Outlines their core values: (1) Health Equity We believe that equitable health care is a fundamental human right. Our goal is to partner with our clients to overcome their barriers to good health and healthcare, including racism, inadequate public transportation, lack of internet access, and inability to pay. (2) Community-Led We believe...

Virginia's New Rural Health Data Commons - Supporting the 2022-2026 Virginia Rural Health Plan with New Health-Related Datasets, Metrics, and Visualizations

Aaron Schroeder & Cesar Montalvo
The Rural Health Data Commons is an open knowledge repository being built by the University of Virginia in partnership with the Virginia State Office of Rural Health. The Rural Health Data Commons co-locates data from a variety of sources, builds and curates data insights, and provides tools designed to track issues over time and geography, allowing governments and community stakeholders to learn continuously from their own data.

NSF GRFP Support for Engineering Graduate Students

Kelly Cunningham
Presentation from 2022 Consortium on Graduate Communication Summer Institute This session will give an overview of programming that helped raise our graduate student acceptance rate on the NSF GRFP from the national average (14-16%) to more than 50%. The presentation will focus on a look at the developments of school level programming for engineering graduate students over the past few years alongside changing, and at times absent, university level support. As we look at further...

Hair Loss in Women of Color Toolkit: A step toward closing the gap

Landon Hobbs
Hair loss is a primary reason for women of color to seek dermatologic care. In addition to physical disfigurement, patients with hair loss are more likely to report feelings of depression, anxiety, and low self- esteem. There exists a critical gap in advocacy efforts and educational information intended for this demographic. We investigated the American Academy of Dermatology resources and advocacy efforts and found that none of the six main public programs (https://www.aad.org/public/public-health) nor any...

Multidisciplinary Course on Medical Care for LGBTQ+ patients

Dana Redick
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ+) -identified patients comprise a large proportion of the overall patient population: 4.5% in the United States (1). Patients who identify as LGBTQ+ often face unique health risks, requiring an individualized approach to cancer screenings, infectious disease screenings, and vaccinations. LGBTQ+ patients are also more likely to have mental health needs, due to the significant minority stress they experience. Discrimination by healthcare providers and lack of provider knowledge about...

Perspectives on Creating an Inclusive Clinical Environment for Sexual and Gender Minority Patients and Providers

Jasraj Raghuwanshi
Background: Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) face discrimination based on their sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI). This discrimination permeates healthcare and hinders SGM patients and providers. Objectives: The aim is to determine if discrimination against SGM providers is present in hospice and palliative care (HPC). An auxiliary goal is to determine how to improve HPC for SGM patients. The ultimate goal is to create an inclusive environment for patients and providers. Methods: A convenience...

Compounding Inequity: Structural Racism, Allostatic load, and Implications for Behavior Change

Dawson Brown
The impact of modifiable health behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, etc.) on downstream health disparities has become a subject of magnified interest amongst researchers, practitioners, and policymakers alike. This interest stems from the significant impact that modifiable health behaviors have on the total burden of disease in the United States, with almost 40% of deaths each year attributed to these behaviors. This burden of harmful health behaviors disproportionately impacts Black Americans - as...

Differences in treatment and outcomes among racial and highest-attained education level in Peripheral Arterial Disease patients in an imaging study performed at UVA

Helen Sporkin
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a prevalent atherosclerotic disease characterized by atherosclerotic lesions in the limbs. Patients with PAD have been shown to have a delayed phosphocreatine recovery due to chronic ischemia. Patients with PAD may be candidates for revascularization, but outcomes are variable. CrCEST allows for creatine concentrations to be monitored at high spatial resolution, while ASL quantifies perfusion into tissue. We use this combination to assess revascularization in patients undergoing both endovascular and...

A systems immunology investigation of pregnancy immune phenotypic differences between racial groups

Remziye Erdogan
In the United States the non-Hispanic black (NHB) infant mortality rate is more than twice the non-Hispanic white (NHW) rate. Further, NHB infants of US-born mothers have statistically worse birth outcomes than infants born to first-generation US immigrants from Africa, indicating trans-generational influences beyond genetics (epigenetics) that impact neonatal health. A successful pregnancy requires a series of well-timed immunological events to support fetal growth and maintain fetal tolerance, including the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory...

Working with the Monticello Area Community Action Agency to reduce disparities in central Virginia

Ani Chandrabhatla
Introduction: The Monticello Area Community Action Agency (MACAA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving the lives of low-income individuals throughout central Virginia. Intervention: As part of the School of Medicine’s “Social Issues in Medicine” curriculum, we engaged in three initiatives to improve MACAA’s operations. First, we completed an asset mapping project to update MACAA’s database of local organizations’ capabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Second, we conducted resource analyses to quantify the areas in which...

Remote Social Determinant of Health Screening for University Medical Associate Patients

Zuhayr Shaikh
University Medical Associates (UMA) is one of the largest clinics at UVA with 13,000 established patients. The medical group sees over 150 patients per day and over 35,000 visits per year and serves a diverse patient population that experiences many social determinants of health (SDOH). Social determinants of health are nonmedical factors like housing and food insecurity, cell/internet access, access to transportation, feelings of loneliness, and health literacy, that can significantly impact medical outcomes. Despite...

Data-driven Operation in Fire/EMS

Hezedean Smith
Describes use of data in Charlottesville Fire Department operations including neighborhood risk reduction, response time analysis, unit hour utilization, overtime dashboard, drive-time analysis, call volume analysis , personnel workload, incident heat mapping, patient disposition analysis, turn out time tracking. Analyzes data-driven changes made to Neighborhood Risk Assessment procedures including sending the closest ”appropriate" ambulance to ALS & BLS level calls.

Transgender Community Beauty Event in Charlottesville

Laura Fuhr & Krishna Patel
The estimated transgender population of Virginia is 34,500 (0.55% of the state population). As an academic health center, UVA Health serves a large proportion of transgender patients from Central Virginia. According to recent statistics, approximately 800 transgender patients are served through gender-affirming care clinics at UVA. However, transgender Virginians continue to experience widespread discrimination in both healthcare and daily life. Given UVA Health’s widespread reach in providing gender-inclusive care across Central Virginia, there remains an...

How to Re-Tool Librarians for Data Curation

Andrew Sallans & Sherry Lake
The University of Virginia Library has begun a process of “re-tooling” subject librarians to meet emerging demands of scientific data management. In leading this new initiative, the Scientific Data Consulting Group (SciDaC) focuses on two main activities: 1) “Data Curation Brown Bag” discussions, and 2) data interviews. Through this process, we hope to gradually help traditional subject librarians develop literacy in issues surrounding scientific data management. Each brown bag session focuses on a very specific...

Scholarship without Publication: The Case of the Mayan Epigraphic Database Project

Rafael Alvarado

Responsible Research and Innovation in the Classroom: A workshop report

Beverley Gibbs, Rider Foley & Paul Martin
Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) recently gained traction in science, engineering and technology (SET) policy in the European Union and United Kingdom and is currently an important initiative for both researchers and educators to consider as they pursue public funds. While attention is often paid to the implications of RRI in the research arena, fewer conversations have explored how this SET policy affects educational and curricular efforts within research-intensive universities. This workshop was an opportunity...

Retrospective Chart Review of Melanoma Outcomes in Non-Hispanic Black Patients and Case-Matched Non-Hispanic White Patients

Nicole Edmonds
Background: It has long been studied that non-Hispanic black (NHB) patients have a lower incidence rate of melanoma but are typically diagnosed at a later stage and have poorer survival rates than non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients. No study has ever compared melanoma outcomes in NHB and NHW patients in our region, however. This study was performed to compare melanoma outcomes in NHB and NHW patients when melanoma depth of invasion is controlled. Methods: A retrospective...

Diversity Representation On Integrated Plastic Surgery Residency Websites

Hannah Jacobs-El
Background: Recruitment and retention of a diverse healthcare workforce is a common residency program requirement as outlined by the American Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Surgical subspecialties (plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, etc.) still face longstanding low racial and ethnic representation among healthcare providers. Diversifying the healthcare workforce is paramount to addressing healthcare disparities. Methods: The websites of all integrated plastic surgery programs acknowledged by the ACGME in December 2020 were analyzed. All websites attributed...

Variability in Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) Between White and Black Patients is Not Explained by Environmental Impacts

Tiana Walker
Introduction: Training in sensitive discussions, such as the topic of race and discrimination, is necessary to help medical students develop skills to forge meaningful patient-physician relationships. However, there is little consensus about how to implement learning activities to promote skill development for use in clinical settings. A pilot activity incorporating a simulated patient encounter was implemented for clerkship phase students to meet the following learning objectives: practice strategies to reject racism expressed by patients and...

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