48 Works

Retrospective Chart Review of Melanoma Outcomes in Non-Hispanic Black Patients and Case-Matched Non-Hispanic White Patients

Nicole Edmonds
Background: It has long been studied that non-Hispanic black (NHB) patients have a lower incidence rate of melanoma but are typically diagnosed at a later stage and have poorer survival rates than non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients. No study has ever compared melanoma outcomes in NHB and NHW patients in our region, however. This study was performed to compare melanoma outcomes in NHB and NHW patients when melanoma depth of invasion is controlled. Methods: A retrospective...

Putting Communities at the Center of Connected, Automated Mobility

Andrew Mondschein, Laura Nagle, Michael Salgueiro & Marnissa Claflin
This project explores ways that communities can reclaim control over their streets as Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) and associated technologies become part of the urban fabric. The historic loss of flexible public space associated with the introduction of cars in the early 20th century and emerging concerns about management of CAVs today indicate that local governments and communities must find new ways to assert control over the planning and operation of streets. We define...

Guiding Principles for Designing an Accessible, Inclusive, and Diverse Library Makerspace

Fang Yi & Melinda Baumann
Accessibility, inclusion, and diversity are core library values. In this paper the authors share findings from small focus group interviews of students’ perceptions and preferences towards a new library makerspace, as well as their understandings of and expectations for accessibility, inclusion, and diversity. Building on findings from qualitative research at the University of Virginia (UVA) Library’s Robertson Media Center (RMC) and an interview with staff members from the UVA Student Disability Center, the authors also...

Faster Secure Two-Party Computation Using Garbled Circuits

Yan Huang, David Evans, Jonathan Katz & Lior Malka
Secure two-party computation enables two parties to evaluate a function cooperatively without revealing to either party anything beyond the function's output. The garbled-circuit technique, a generic approach to secure two-party computation for semi-honest participants, was developed by Yao in the 1980s, but has been viewed as being of limited practical significance due to its inefficiency. We demonstrate several techniques for improving the running time and memory requirements of the garbled-circuit technique, resulting in an implementation...

The APTrust Story

Martha Sites
The Academic Preservation Trust (APTrust) is an innovative consortium committed to the creation and management of a sustainable environment for digital preservation and aggregate repository services for academic and research content. This paper responds to a number of questions that were voiced when APTrust was established: What led to the formation of APTrust? What does APTrust hope to accomplish? Most important, why should it be a top priority for academic libraries? After considering these questions...

Use of the BEATDiabetes mHealth Program to Improve Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes

Susan Blank
Introduction to the BEATDiabetes program, whose mission is to empower people with Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes to improve their health through the use of clinically proven mobile technology solutions, with a special focus on underserved populations that face barriers to care.

Designing Scalable Syntaxes for Interface-Modifying Digital Self-Control Tool Interventions

R.X. Schwartz & Panagiotis Apostolellis
How can interface-modifying digital self-control tools “scale up” so that they can become widely used, adaptable, and reliable systems in a user's digital lifestyle? This paper is motivated by ad blockers and password managers, two types of popular user interface modification tools (outside of the digital self-control area) which provide reliable user experiences among a large scale of websites. We apply a framework based on the syntaxes of ad blockers and password managers to the...

COVID-19 Vaccination Status Surveying and Education

Cam Stadlin & Caroline Cotton
We travelled throughout Charlottesville and the surrounding counties to conduct research regarding why community members chose not to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, where they obtained vaccine information, and what the demographics were of this population. We collected this information through anonymous, voluntary paper surveys. Concurrently, we also distributed informational handouts on the virus, vaccine, free rides to vaccinations, and lists of vaccination sites nearby. 215 surveys were completed by community members and 264 online surveys...

Academic Productivity Among Underrepresented Minority Urologists at Academic Institutions

Caleigh Smith
Background: This study compares academic productivity among underrepresented minorities (URMs) and genders within urology. Methods: A database of residents and faculty was created from 145 urology residency programs including demographics, URM status, and publications (pubs). URM equals Black, Hispanic, or Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. Multivariable analysis included URM status, gender, years of practice, and Doximity institution rank. Results: Among 1,644 residents, 145 (9%) were URMs, with a median of 2 (IQR 1,5) pubs for URMs and...

The Impact of Free Clinic Services on Healthcare Utilization among Charlottesville Residents Experiencing Homelessness

Steven Neal
The UVA Community Outreach Clinic is a free clinic run by UVA physicians and medical students that provides access to healthcare for Charlottesville residents currently experiencing homelessness. The study population includes patients experiencing homelessness who have had at least one visit at this free clinic. The primary objective of this study is to assess changes in the frequency of emergency department visits before and after a patient’s initial UVA Community Outreach Clinic visit. Secondary objectives...

Covid-19 in Native America

Brianna Baldwin
According to CDC data, American Indians, and Alaskan Natives (AI/AN) have insofar experienced the highest rates of COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths among any ethnic group in the U.S., despite the highest rate of vaccinations among any ethnic group. AI/AN peoples suffer 1.7x cases, 3.5x hospitalizations, and 2.4x deaths when compared to White, Non-Hispanic persons. In June 2020 in particular, the Navajo Nation reported a 3.4% COVID-19 infection rate, higher than any U.S. state. The...

Incarceration: A Driver of Health Disparities Before, During and After COVID-19

Preston Reynolds
Reviews the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective within mass incarceration, with specific narrative from the Albemarle County Regional Jail.

Humanities Unbound: Supporting Careers and Scholarship Beyond the Tenure Track

Katina Rogers
As humanities scholars increasingly recognize the value of public engagement, and as the proportion of tenure-track faculty positions available to new graduates continues to decline, many humanities programs are focusing renewed attention on equipping graduate students for careers as scholars both within and beyond academe. To support those efforts, the Scholarly Communication Institute has carried out a study investigating perceptions about career preparation provided by humanities graduate programs. The survey results help to create a...

Healthcare Needs and Protective Factors of Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Older Adults: A Systematic Integrative Review

Lauren Catlett
Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) older adults encounter discrimination in healthcare settings and experience health disparities and lack of access to healthcare. However, given these disparities, TGNC elders have protective factors like resilience that may mitigate healthcare challenges. A systematic integrative review was conducted to synthesize and analyze recent studies addressing the needs and protective factors of TGNC older adults living in the US. Methods included a systematic literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of...

COVID-19, Racism’s New Chapter

Taison Bell
Objectives: Outline the disproportionate impact COVID-19 has had on Black, Hispanic, and Indigenous communities; Explain Social Determinants of Health and how they lead to worse outcomes for COVID-19; Argue that Social Determinants of Health are really just an approachable way to discuss systemic racism; Health Equity as the path forward.

Art, Health Disparities, and Medical Education

Lydia Prokosch
Historical and contemporary artists have used visual representations to lead, and contribute to, dialogue on healthcare disparities. As a first-year medical student, I created paintings of the historical segregated hospital wards at UVA and of the Fifeville neighborhood adjacent to UVA hospital in partnership with the UVA Center for Health Humanities and Ethics. Since then, I have worked with UVA faculty to study paintings, photographs, and murals that depict a variety of topics related to...

Fostering Conversations: Supporting First-Generation/Low-Income Students in Medicine

Haley Meade, Lydia Prokosch & Stephany Vittitow
The First-Generation/Low-Income Students in Medicine organization was founded in November 2020, after a small group of students recognized a lack of support and representation for first generation and low-income students at the University of Virginia School of Medicine. In the past year, we have organized various events for medical students, residents, and faculty to support their well-being and create spaces for participants to share about their identities. We would like to highlight the wide spectrum...

The Impact of Community Based Doula Care In Improving Black Maternal Health Outcomes

Doreen Bonnet
Birth Sisters of Charlottesville is a doula collective of women of color supporting women of color through their birth journey and into motherhood. Our aim is to amplify the resiliency of Black, Indigenous, Women of Color by drawing on life experiences, shared values, training, and sacred legacies to provide culturally rooted, trauma informed perinatal services and advocacy. We serve Charlottesville and the surrounding areas.

An Algorithm for State Constrained Stochastic Linear-Quadratic Control

Zhou Zhou & Randy Cogill
Here we consider a state-constrained stochastic linear quadratic control problem. This problem has linear dynamics and a quadratic cost, and states are required to satisfy a probabilistic constraint. In this paper, the joint probabilistic constraint in the model is converted to a conservative deterministic one using multi-dimensional Chebyshev bound. A maximum volume inscribed ellipsoid problem is solved to obtain this probability bound. We then design an optimal affine controller for the resulting problem. The convexity...

Ulysses’ ropes and the inherent limits of digital self-control tools

R.X. Schwartz
Millions of users install digital self-control tools (DSCTs) in order to limit their device usage. Previous inductive HCI research on DSCTs has shown that these tools are not always effective. However, it is unclear if these failures are inherent to DSCTs or merely incidental. In response, this analysis uses a deductive method to identify and classify the inherent limits of DSCTs. First, Homer’s siren story from The Odyssey is presented as an ideal form of...

The Hydraulics Project: Empowering Communities to Build a Digital Library Utilizing Fedora and an Event-Driven Service-Oriented Messaging Framework

Andrew Curley
Recent collaborative efforts including the Hydra Project and development of Blacklight have made significant strides towards creating revolutionary tools for indexing and accessing digital content managed by a Fedora repository. Comparatively, less attention has been paid to creating applications and standardized workflows designed to easily ingest content into repositories. This issue demands attention because a key measure of a repositoryʼs usefulness is the quality and quantity of digital content made available to the public. A...

National Network of Libraries of Medicine Hurricane Summit Report

Susan Yowell & Daniel Wilson
On Wednesday, February 8, 2012, the Louis Calder Memorial Library of the University of Miami’s Miller School of Medicine hosted a summit meeting to share best practices, discuss roles for libraries following a disaster, and facilitate communication and cooperation among librarians and emergency planners in the Miami/Dade County area. The meeting was sponsored through an award by the Southeastern/Atlantic Region of National Network of Libraries of Medicine’s (NN/LM) Emergency Preparedness & Response Initiative.

Managing Competing Interests with Off-Site Storage

Esther Onega & Kara McClurken
The University of Virginia Library has had a twenty-year history of off-site storage for its growing collections. As our need to store things off-site has grown, so have the growth of a comprehensive preservation program and the preservation goals of off-site storage. Ivy Stacks, the Library’s off-site repository, opened in 1994, with books stored in boxes. A major renovation from 2010-2012 expanded that building’s capacity by installing both high density shelving and sorting the books...

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