167 Works

Beyond Technological Literacy Open Data as Active Democratic Engagement?

Caitlin Wylie, Kathryn Neeley & Sean Ferguson
We consider scholarly conversations about digital citizenship as a continuation of centuries of discourse about citizenship, democracy, and technoscience. Conceptually, we critique portrayals of citizenship from Jeffersonian polities to technical literacy to critical health and environmental justice movements. This analysis forms the basis for proposing an alternative, normative theoretical perspective on citizens’ engagement in governance: the ethics of care. This framework enables a move from citizens’ civic engagement as motivated by duty and risk perception...

Glass-boxing science: Laboratory work on display in museums

Caitlin Wylie
Museum displays tend to black-box science, by displaying scientific facts without explanations of how those facts were made. A recent trend in exhibit design upends this omission by putting scientists to work in glass-walled laboratories, just a window away from visitors. How is science being conceived, portrayed, and performed in glass-walled laboratories? Interviews and participant observation in several “fishbowl” paleontology laboratories reveal that glass walls alter lab workers’ typical tasks and behavior. Despite glass-walled labs’...

‘The artist’s piece is already in the stone’: Constructing creativity in paleontology laboratories

Caitlin Wylie
Laboratory technicians are typically portrayed as manual workers following routine procedures to produce scientific data. However, technicians in vertebrate paleontology laboratories often describe their work in terms of creativity and artistry. Fossil specimens undergo extensive preparation – including rock removal, damage repair, and reconstruction of missing parts – to become accessible to researchers. Technicians called fossil preparators choose, apply, and sometimes invent these preparation methods. They have no formal training, no standard protocols, and few...

Biomedical Journals' Standards for Digital Images in Biomedical Articles

Addeane Caelleigh
Standards for appropriate manipulation of digital data have developed more slowly than has the software for manipulating the images. Half of all cases now investigated by the federal Office of Research Integrity involve questions about digital images. The authors examined the instructions to authors and related material for 446 biomedical journals to identify their guidelines and/or requirements for digital data images. Half (50%) of the journals had no guidelines or only referred to 'art' (printed...

Transport of Large-Scale Poloidal Flux in Black Hole Accretion

John Hawley
We report on a global, three-dimensional GRMHD simulation of an accretion torus embedded in a large-scale vertical magnetic field orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole. This simulation investigates how a large-scale vertical field evolves within a turbulent accretion disk and whether global magnetic field configurations suitable for launching jets and winds can develop. We find that a “coronal mechanism” of magnetic flux motion, which operates largely outside the disk body, dominates global flux evolution. In this...

The notes from nature tool for unlocking biodiversity records from museum records through citizen science

Andrew Sallans, Andrew Hill, Robert Guralnick, Arfon Smith, Rosemary Gillespie, Michael Denslow, Joyce Gross, Zack Murrell, Tim Conyers, Peter Oboyski, Joan Ball, Andrea Thomer, Robert Prys-Jones, Javier de la Torre, Patrick Kociolek & Lucy Fortson
Legacy data from natural history collections contain invaluable and irreplaceable information about biodiversity in the recent past, providing a baseline for detecting change and forecasting the future of biodiversity on a human-dominated planet. However, these data are often not available in formats that facilitate use and synthesis. New approaches are needed to enhance the rates of digitization and data quality improvement. Notes from Nature provides one such novel approach by asking citizen scientists to help...

Overcoming the Fear of Gaming: A Strategy for Incorporating Games into Teaching and Learning

Rafael Alvarado
The effective use of games in academia requires a critical approach to the medium and a willingness to let go of the learning process and harness its outcomes

Accretion disk dynamics, photoionized plasmas, and stellar opacities

John Hawley
We present a brief review on the atomic kinetics, modeling and interpretation of astrophysical observations, and laboratory astrophysics experiments. The emphasis is on benchmarking of opacity calculations relevant for solar structure models, photoionized plasmas research, the magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulation of accretion disk dynamics, and a connection between radiation transport effects and plasma source geometry details. Specific cases of application are discussed with relevance to recent and proposed laboratory astrophysics experiments as well as Chandra and...

Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

Jessica Gephart & Michael Pace
The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and...

Model Language for Research Data Management Policies

William Corey, Nathan Hall, Wendy Mann & Tom Wilson
This proposal was drafted by a Working Group of the ASERL/SURA Research Data Coordinating Committee. The purpose of this document is to provide model language for universities to consider when drafting policy to support data management practices and infrastructure at their institutions. ASERL/SURA member institutions may not need all of the sections in this document. Each institution should include the sections that are relevant for their situation, and modify content as necessary. Much of this...

After Suspicion

Rita Felski
(:unav)

After Magic: Modern Charm in History, Theory, and Practice

Herbert Tucker
(:unav)

Lower neighborhood quality in adolescence predicts higher mesolimbic sensitivity to reward anticipation in adulthood

Marlen Gonzalez, Joseph Allen & James Coan
Life history theory suggests that adult reward sensitivity should be best explained by childhood, but not current, socioeconomic conditions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 83 participants from a larger longitudinal sample completed the monetary incentive delay (MID) task in adulthood (∼25 years old). Parent-reports of neighborhood quality and parental SES were collected when participants were 13 years of age. Current income level was collected concurrently with scanning. Lower adolescent neighborhood quality, but...

Thomas Jefferson, Federalist

Peter Onuf
(:unav)

Black History Month Jeopardy at a PWI: a how-to

Katrina Spencer
Many small towns in predominantly white spaces offer rather few opportunities to celebrate the cultural life and contributions of underrepresented groups in society. Libraries may have the capacity to practice anti-racist methodologies and forge strong bonds with underrepresented groups by supporting and hosting culturally affirming programming. Black History Month Jeopardy was a success every February in Middlebury, Vermont for three years where Librarian Katrina Spencer arranged for contestants to be rewarded for their knowledge about...

Resilience and recovery potential of duneland vegetation in the southern Kalahari

Abinash Bhattachan, Paolo D'Odorico, Kebonyethata Dintwe, Gregory Okin & Scott Collins
Many dune fields around the world have undergone alternating periods of mobilization and stabilization in response to changes in wind power and rainfall. However, in modern times disturbances associated with land use are believed to be a dominant factor contributing to the activation of stabilized vegetated dunes in drylands, while the reduction in human activities such as grazing and farming may lead to stabilization of once active dune fields. The Kalahari region of southern Africa...

PbSe quantum dot based luminescent solar concentrators

Dennis Waldron, Amanda Preske, Joseph Zawodny, Todd Krauss & Mool Gupta
The results are presented for luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) fabricated with poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (P(LMA-co-EGDMA)) and Angstrom Bond, Inc. AB9093 acrylic epoxy matrix, high quantum yield (> 70%) PbSe quantum dots (QDs) and silicon photovoltaic (Si PV) cells. LSCs were tested under a lamp with broadband illumination, photon flux-matched to a standard solar spectrum and verified under a calibrated solar lamp source. The P(LMA-co-EGDMA) sample demonstrated the highest power conversion efficiency of any known...

The case for character displacement in plants

Carolyn Beans
The evidence for character displacement as a widespread response to competition is now building. This progress is largely the result of the establishment of rigorous criteria for demonstrating character displacement in the animal literature. There are, however, relatively few well-supported examples of character displacement in plants. This review explores the potential for character displacement in plants by addressing the following questions: (1) Why aren’t examples of character displacement in plants more common? (2) What are...

Two-photon absorption lineshapes in the transit-time limit

Kevin Lehmann
A weak excitation, transit-time resolution limited analytic lineshape is derived for a Doppler Broadening Free, degenerate two-photon transition from a standing wave with a TEM00 transverse profile. This approximation is appropriate when the collisional mean free path is much larger than the transverse width of the TEM00 beam. It is considerably simpler than the two-photon absorption lineshape previously published, C. Borde, Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires Des Seances De L Academie Des Sciences Serie B 282, 341-344...

Secretory vesicles deliver Cdc42p to sites of polarized growth in S. cerevisiae

Keith Kozminski & Shubha Dighe
he activation and localization of the Rho-family GTPase Cdc42p at one pole of a cell is necessary for maintaining an axis of polarized growth in many animal and fungal cells. How the asymmetric distribution of this key regulator of polarized morphogenesis is maintained is not fully understood, though divergent models have emerged from a congruence of multiple studies, including one that posits a role for polarized secretion. Here we show with S. cerevisiae that Cdc42p...

Corporate Environmental Performance and Shareholder Value

Mark White
The role corporations should play in achieving social objectives is a topic with a lengthy history of debate. Significant recent interest has focused on the impact corporate activities have upon the natural world and the environment. This paper examines the link between corporate environmental responsibility--measured by environmental reputation indices--and shareholder wealth. Investors in a portfolio of firms enjoying above-average reputations for corporate environmental responsibility earn risk-adjusted returns significantly greater than either the overall market or...

The iTHRIV Commons: A Cross-Institution Information and Health Research Data Sharing Architecture and Web Application

Johanna Loomba
Objective The integrated Translational Health Research Institute of Virginia (iTHRIV) aims to develop an information architecture to support data workflows throughout the research lifecycle for cross-state teams of translational researchers. Materials and Methods The iTHRIV Commons is a cross-state harmonized infrastructure supporting resource discovery, targeted consultations, and research data workflows. As the front end to the iTHRIV Commons, the iTHRIV Research Concierge Portal supports federated login, personalized views, and secure interactions with objects in the...

Voicing the ancestors: Readings in memory of George Stocking

Ira Bashkow
In this Forum, four anthropologists have chosen an “ancestral” figure to give voice to. Anthropologists’ ancestors are generally teachers, mentors, or, less proximally, canonized scholars of prior generations. Anthropologists draw on their ancestors for theoretical wisdom and practical guidance. Yet ancestors are not always shared broadly across our discipline, and they can easily fall into oblivion. Giving voice to them, publicly, allows each contributor to comment on an important scholar and invites readers to renew...

Where Credit Is Due: Preconditions for the Evaluation of Collaborative Digital Scholarship

Bethany Nowviskie
Our instinct is to evaluate the products of digital scholarship as if they can be mapped neatly to unary objects and established categories, such as journal articles or monographs. But a search for equivalency in product can lead us to overlook those incommensurate collaborative processes by which digital scholarship is created: systems of production that require closer partnership than ever before among scholars and the technologists, student and postdoctoral researchers, content creators, designers, faculty colleagues,...

Viscous and Resistive Effects on the Magnetorotational Instability with a Net Toroidal Field

John Hawley
Resistivity and viscosity have a significant role in establishing the energy levels in turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in local astrophysical disk models. This study uses the Athena code to characterize the effects of a constant shear viscosity ν and Ohmic resistivity η in unstratified shearing box simulations with a net toroidal magnetic flux. A previous study of shearing boxes with zero net magnetic field performed with the ZEUS code found that turbulence...

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