168 Works

The Truth Criteria of Autobiography: Doris Lessing and Telling the Truth

Lorna Martens
This paper examines the notion of the “true” narrative, using the example of Doris Lessing in order to explore some of the truth criteria of contemporary autobiography. My assumption is that autobiography subscribes to a variety of historically changing truth criteria and that authors seek to conform to certain of them by engaging appropriate codes. Firmly committed to “telling the truth” in her writing, Lessing has consistently problematized the actual telling of the truth. After...

Evaluating Collaborative Digital Scholarship

Bethany Nowviskie
This is an edited and peer-reviewed version of a talk given at the 2011 NINES Summer Institute, a National Endowment for the Humanities-funded workshop on evaluating digital scholarship for purposes of tenure and promotion, hosted by the Networked Infrastructure for Nineteenth-Century Electronic Scholarship.

Setting a Standard for a “Silent” Disease: Defining Osteoporosis in the 1980s and 1990s

Caitlin Wylie
Osteoporosis, a disease of bone loss associated with aging and estrogen loss, can be crippling but is “silent” or symptomless prior to bone fracture. Despite its disastrous health effects, high prevalence, and enormous associated healthcare costs, osteoporosis lacked a universally accepted definition until 1992. In the 1980s, the development of more accurate medical imaging technologies to measure bone density spurred the medical community’s need and demand for a common definition. The medical community tried, and...

Overcoming the underdetermination of specimens

Caitlin Wylie
Philosophers of science are well aware that theories are underdetermined by data. But what about the data? Scientific data are selected and processed representations or pieces of nature. What is useless context and what is valuable specimen, as well as how specimens are processed for study, are not obvious or predetermined givens. Instead, they are decisions made by scientists and other research workers, such as technicians, that produce different outcomes for the data. Vertebrate fossils...

Socialization through stories of disaster in engineering laboratories

Caitlin Wylie
The initiation of novices into research communities relies on the communication of tacit knowledge, behavioral norms and moral values. Much of this instruction happens informally, as messages subtly embedded in everyday interactions. This study uses participant-observation and interviews to investigate how engineers socialize future engineers by studying how undergraduate students who work in an engineering laboratory learn their research community’s social and technical norms. I found that a key method of conveying knowledge about social...

Temperature dependent optical properties of lead selenide quantum dot polymer nanocomposites

Dennis Waldron, Rebeckah Burke, Amanda Preske, Todd Krauss, Joseph Zawodny & Mool Gupta
The optical properties of PbSe quantum dots (QDs) in AB9093 epoxy nanocomposite are examined with respect to temperature over a range of 0°C–80°C, a useful working range for many QD-based sensors and devices, and results are compared to QDs in toluene solution. A complete characterization of QD optical properties is provided as a function of temperature, including the absorption spectrum, first excitonic (1-s) absorption peak intensity and wavelength, fluorescence intensity, and peak wavelength. QD optical...

COLLEX: semantic collections & exhibits for the remixable web

Bethany Nowviskie
Collex is a set of tools designed to aid students and scholars working in networked archives and federated repositories of humanities materials: a sophisticated collections and exhibits mechanism for the semantic web. It allows users to collect, annotate, and tag online objects and to repurpose them in illustrated, interlinked essays or exhibits. Collex functions within any modern web browser without recourse to plugins or downloads and is fully networked as a server-side application. By saving...

Looney Tunes and Unheard Melodies: ☺ -) An Oulipian Colonescapade, with a Critique of \"The Great-Ape Love Song Corpus\" and its Lexicon

Jerome McGann
The ultimate aim of this paper is to raise the consciousness of colonized scholars -- to free us from the colonic obstructions that have become a rampant academic disease. This is a colonescapade and not a colonoscopy for two reasons: first, we are investigating the waste regions of the linguistic and not the biological body; second, our "escapade" is not an "oscopy" because it seeks to go beyond diagnosis and operate on the disease directly....

Culture and Technology: The Way We Live Now, What Is to be Done

Jerome McGann
The paper addresses the so-called “Crisis in the Humanities” in the context of two of its most apparent symptoms: the digital transformation of our museums and archives, and the explicitly parallel “Crisis in Tenure and Publishing” that has more recently come to attention. It introduces and frames a practical proposal, now underway, for dealing with both. This is the NINES initiative: Networked Infrastructure for Nineteenth-century Electronic Scholarship. The rationale of NINES is described, including the...

Eunoia: Beauty or Truth (or What?)

Jerome McGann

Select Resources for Image-based Humanities Computing

Bethany Nowviskie
What follows is by no means a complete bibliography of the rapidly-evolving practice of image-based humanities computing. I have assembled here a list of resources and tools broadly applicable to data visualization and graphical analysis in the liberal arts. Highly technical papers and genre-specific projects have only been indexed when their issues or methodologies illuminate image-based work across the humanities. Readers interested in computer vision and scientific visualization should consult the bibliographies in Section 4....

Threshold Switching Characteristics of Nb/NbO2/TiN Vertical Devices

Yuhan Wang
We have observed threshold switching (TS) with minimal hysteresis and a small threshold electric field (60–90 kV/cm) in Nb/NbO2/TiN structures. The TS was unipolar with certain repeatability. A less sharp but still sizable change in the device resistance can be observed up to 150 ◦C. The TS without Nb capping layer exhibited hysteretic characteristics. It was proposed that the surface Nb2O5 layer on NbO2 could significantly modify the TS in this vertical device. This understanding...

Praxis, Through Prisms: a Digital Boot Camp for Grad Students in the Humanities

Bethany Nowviskie
The Praxis Program is a digital-methods workshop and competitively awarded, yearlong apprenticeship at the University of Virginia Library Scholars' Lab, designed to train emerging scholars and tech-savvy knowledge workers in the humanities. One challenge facing our students also confronts others new to the rapidly-expanding digital humanities. How can scholars who have up to now been selected and rewarded almost exclusively for their facility in argument engage effectively with the most audacious contribution of the field?...

Rigorously defined hemicrania continua presenting bilaterally

Andrew M. Southerland & Ivan S. Login
Background: Hemicrania continua (HC) represents a headache syndrome characterized by continuous, unilateral head pain, autonomic features, and a complete therapeutic response to indomethacin. While HC is classified as a unique entity among primary headache disorders, it clearly shares features with other primary headaches including trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and chronic daily headaches, such as chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache. Additionally, the diagnosis is often delayed secondary to a relatively low incidence and the occurrence of...

A Case Study in the Evolution of Digital Services for Science and Engineering Libraries

Carol Hunter, Sherry Lake, Carla Lee & Andrew Sallans
Building on experiences from earlier digital initiatives and partnerships, the University of Virginia has developed new services and forged new collaborations between traditional information technology and library units in support of changing approaches to science and engineering research and education. Over the past 4 years, the library has evolved through numerous service models, changes in institutional vision, and budgetary shortfalls and has emerged with a new understanding of where to invest resources and energy for...

DMP Online and DMPTool: Different Strategies Towards a Shared Goal

Andrew Sallans & Martin Donnelly
This paper provides a comparative discussion of the strategies employed in the UK’s DMP Online tool and the US’s DMPTool, both designed to provide a structured environment for research data management planning (DMP) with explicit links to funder requirements. Following the Sixth International Digital Curation Conference, held in Chicago in December 2010, a number of US institutions partnered with the Digital Curation Centre’s DMP Online team to learn from their experiences while developing a US...

Targeting Speech and True Threats

Brandon Butler
This Note defines and discusses a category of crime-related speech that, although tied to grave criminal acts in controversial, high profile cases, has not been characterized clearly or accurately in those cases or in the copious First Amendment literature surrounding them. I call this phenomenon “targeting speech” because the speaker “targets” a victim by naming her or disclosing other personal information about her to an audience whose pre-existing malice the speaker directs at the victim.

Feeding humanity through the food and water trade networks

Paolo D'Odorico & Joel Carr
The recent intensification of international trade has led to a globalization of food commodities and to an increased disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. Several countries are not self-sufficient and depend on imports from other regions. Despite the recognized importance of the role of trade in global and regional food security, the societal reliance on domestic production and international trade remains poorly quantified....

Effects of bulk and interfacial anharmonicity on thermal conductance at solid/solid interfaces

Nam Q. Le, Carlos A. Polanco, Rouzbeh Rastgarkafshgarkolaei, Jinjie Zhang, Avik Ghosh & Pamela M. Norris
We present the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations to assess the relative contributions to interfacial thermal conductance from inelastic phonon processes at the interface and in the adjacent bulk materials. The simulated system is the prototypical interface between argon and “heavy argon” crystals, which enables comparison with many past computational studies. We run simulations interchanging the Lennard-Jones potential with its harmonic approximation to test the effect of anharmonicity on conductance. The results confirm that...

Distinguishing Early Successional Plant Communities Using Ground-Level Hyperspectral Data

Itiya Aneece & Howard Epstein
Abandoned agricultural fields have recently become more abundant in the U.S. and remain susceptible to species invasions after cultivation disturbance. As invasive species become more widespread with increases in anthropogenic activities, we need more effective ways to use limited resources for conservation of native ecosystems. Remote sensing can help us monitor the spread and effects of invasive species, and thus determine the species and locations to target for conservation. To examine this potential, we studied...

Vegetation heterogeneity and landscape position exert strong controls on soil CO2 efflux in a moist, Appalachian watershed

Jeffrey Atkins, Howard Epstein & Daniel Welsch
In topographically complex watersheds, landscape position and vegetation heterogeneity can alter the soil water regime through both lateral and vertical redistribution, respectively. These alterations of soil moisture may have significant impacts on the spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemical cycles throughout the watershed. To evaluate how landscape position and vegetation heterogeneity affect soil CO2 efflux (FSOIL), we conducted observations across the Weimer Run watershed (373 ha), located near Davis, West Virginia, for three growing seasons with varying...

The Rationale of Hypertext

Jerome McGann

Correlation between sequence divergence and polymorphism reveals similar evolutionary mechanisms acting across multiple timescales in a rapidly evolving plastid genome

Karen Barnard, Daniel Sloan & Laura Galloway
Abstract Background: Although the plastid genome is highly conserved across most angiosperms, multiple lineages have increased rates of structural rearrangement and nucleotide substitution. These lineages exhibit an excess of nonsynonymous substitutions (i.e., elevated dN/dS ratios) in similar subsets of plastid genes, suggesting that similar mechanisms may be leading to relaxed and/or positive selection on these genes. However, little is known regarding whether these mechanisms continue to shape sequence diversity at the intraspecific level. Results: We...

Epic Theory

Herbert Tucker
Among major literary kinds, epic offers the most long-standing and globally distributed evidence of the human habit of thinking by means of narrative. What it cherishes is the common good; what it ponders are the behaviors and values that forward or threaten collective welfare. What it reckons are the stakes of heroic risk that any living culture must hazard in order to prosper, by negotiating core identities with margins and adjusting settled customs to emergent...

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