584 Works

\"We've Always Worked\": Professionalizing Life among White-Collar Women in Contemporary Urban China

Xinyan Peng
Based on 12 months of ethnographic research in Shanghai, “We’ve Always Worked” focuses on the culture of work in today’s urban China, and how it has permeated life beyond the workplace to shape bodily training, family, kinship and social relationships among young white-collar women in their twenties and thirties. It integrates studies of work, body, gender, and kinship, investigating how ideas and practices of work reconstitute women’s subjectivities, families, and social lives. “We’ve Always Worked”...

Heat Transfer Mechanism in a-Si and a-Si:H

Mehrdad Fazli
Disordered solids are important materials to study because of their broad applications in technologies like thin-film transistors (TFT), solar cells and etc. They also have a scientifically significance due to their complexity and lack of order and periodicity. One of the long-standing issues in this class of solids is understanding the nature of heat transport in these solids. The common model of phonon gas breaks down for these materials. Therefore, many theories have formed around...

Understanding and Preparing for Ambitious Elementary Mathematics Instruction

Rebekah Berlin
The goal of this dissertation is to surface issues of conceptualization and measurement in mathematics education and mathematics teacher education. Paper one, “Toward a Systems Lens in Elementary Mathematics Teacher Preparation,” uses Cultural Historical Activity Theory to inform a more holistic conception of elementary teacher education than is commonly used in large scale studies of mathematics teacher preparation. Multivariate path analysis indicates there is significant variability in candidates’ perceptions of their experiences and that these...

High-Efficiency Photon Sieves and Applications

Matthew Julian
Flexible, planar diffractive optical focusing elements are of interest due to their relative design simplicity, large-area scalability, and low cost of manufacturing compared to refractive optics, metamaterial lenses, and microlens arrays. Fresnel zone plates have been considered for this application. However, the relatively large side-bands produced in the zone plate focal plane result in a reduced signal contrast, which is not ideal for many applications. In order to eliminate this issue, photon sieves have been...

Synthesis and Thermoelectric Studies of a Narrow Gap Semiconducting Alloy for Cooling: BiSb

Sheng Gao
Thermoelectric (TE) technology plays a vital role in heat-to-electrical energy conversion and refrigeration. Bismuth antimony (Bi-Sb) is one of the most promising materials for thermoelectric cooling. Therefore my research target was focused on designing, preparing and characterizing Bi-Sb alloys to achieve a high figure of merit ZT. Herein a high figure of merit ZT near 0.6 at cryogenic temperatures (100-150K) in zero magnetic field has been measured in nanocrystalline bulk n-type Bi85Sb15, nearly 50% higher...

Novel Evaluation of Preclinical Models of Peripheral Arterial Disease Using Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound

Alyssa Becker
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a vascular disease resulting from poor perfusion of the extremities, particularly the legs, which affects over 200 million people worldwide. One pharmacologic treatment option is cilostazol, which is the only drug approved in the US that has been shown to modestly increase pain-free walking time. Despite decades of research and numerous clinical trials, the efficacy of available therapies is still limited. This may suggest shortcomings in current animal models and/or...

Control and Perception of Robotic Movement with Styles

Lin Bai
Robots are usually thought of as tools that carry out different tasks with functional movements. Robots that need to operate in human-facing environments will require complex options for modifying their movements to communicate changing state information. However, current robotic platforms are limited in reproducing the variation of movement in human perception, such as Baxter Research Robot from Rethink Robotics and Nao from Aldebaran Robotics. This research focuses on improving the feature variation of robotic movement...

Gene expression evolution during sunflower (Helianthus annuus) domestication

Ray Watson
Domestication is characterized by dramatic phenotypic evolution from a wild progenitor to a species adapted for human use. In crops, much research has been dedicated to identifying traits associated with domestication and identifying loci underlying these traits on an individual basis as part of breeding programs. However, identifying genes or loci contributing to domestication phenotypes which are also under selection at the genome/transcriptome-wide level has only been recently explored in a few crops. Further, little...

Race, Entrepreneurship, and Urban Revitalization in Detroit

Candace Miller
Recent revitalization in Detroit, Michigan has been characterized by a proliferation in entrepreneurship and gentrification-driven redevelopment. Given the rapid expansion of gentrification in many U.S. cities, scholars have focused on the costs and benefits, especially for poor and minority residents. Drawing on U.S. Census, Survey of Business Owners data, 89 in-depth interviews, and 22 months of ethnography, my dissertation examines how experiences of business-ownership differ between Black and white entrepreneurs in gentrifying neighborhoods and Black...

New Methods Towards Efficient, Catalytic C-O and C-N Bond Forming Reactions

Logan Combee
In nature, the efficiency and specificity of enzymes allows for rapid transformations of simple molecules into complex, stereodefined bioactive compounds. Years of chemical research have been aimed at understanding and mimicking these transformations through catalysis. Despite this, the need remains for synthetic chemists to develop methods which can replicate this kind of selectivity in order to have access to many therapeutic natural products which to date are synthetically inaccessible. With this challenge in mind, the...

Tracing the Environmental Impact of an Energy Dense Diet from Production to Consumption

Nathan Rose
The U.S. population has grown from ~40 million in 1870 to over 300 million today. To meet the demands of a growing population, agriculture has seen the rise of technological advances including the tractor, hybridization, agrochemicals, and genetic engineering. Improved methods leading to excess yields from agriculture have has major environmental impacts. Agriculture produces up to 30% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developed countries (Clark and Tilman, 2017; Hallström et al., 2015; Klein et...

Discrimination, Mental Health, and Academic Performance among Underrepresented College Students: The Role of Extracurricular Activities at Predominantly White Institutions

Janelle Billingsley
In this study, I explored the potential of extracurricular activity involvement (ECAI) among underrepresented college students to counter and protect against the noxious effects of perceived discrimination on academic performance. Students (N = 340; 68.5% female), were eligible to participate if they identified as a member of a historically underrepresented racial or ethnic group, as first-generation college students, and/or if their families were economically disadvantaged. Data were collected over three time points during students’ first...

Marrying Quality and Authenticity: One Teacher's Place-based Approach to Writing Instruction

Jennifer Suriano
High school students need skills in writing, communication, and inquiry to be successful in college and careers. Although, many students graduate without proficiency in communicating knowledge and clearly expressing their ideas. Often times, traditional science and English curricula do not support students in addressing community issues or global humanitarian concerns. Thus, these students are ill-prepared to act as productive global citizens in the future. To illustrate this problem and explore a possible solution, I conducted...

Speech-Based Emotion Recognition

Ye Gao
Many algorithms on speech-based emotion detection that utilize machine learning are published. They are often trained and tested on datasets that consist of audio clips in which the speaker emulates emotion such as anger, happiness, neutrality, and sadness. Despite the high accuracy that the algorithms have achieved, they are not suitable for real-life deployment for two reasons. First, the datasets are often times collected in strictly controlled environments where noises are minimum and the microphone...

Stormy or Sunny?: Exploring Institutional Factors that Influence Campus Racial Climate

Kimalee Dickerson
The three manuscripts in this dissertation reflect a cohesive approach to exploring contemporary issues of racial climate at predominantly White institutions. The first paper uses educational research to support the legal argument that Black-themed residential programs contribute to, rather than undermine, the educational benefits of diversity. The second paper uses qualitative methods to explore the ways in which faculty and staff diversity allies believe their professional school's history of racial segregation influences present-day racial climate....

High-Speed Integrated Waveguide Photodiodes for Next-Generation Optical Communications

Bassem Tossoun
With applications such as cloud computing, social networks, and search, and the coming age of artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things (IoT), data usage is nearly doubling yearly worldwide and current data centers are facing enormous pressure to increase bandwidth and data transmission capacity. Although there have been numerous technological advances in optical communication systems that mitigate pressure on data links, it is predicted that current optical network architectures will not be able to...

Solving Problems with Design Thinking:The relationships between practitioners' use of Design Thinking, problem specificity, and perceived team cooperation

Andrew King
Organizations constantly face complex problems that they must solve in order to serve their stakeholders. These organizations rely on their employees to identify and solve these problems in order to provide their stakeholders with value. Organizations cannot always rely on highly experienced individuals and teams to solve every challenging problem that arises. In order to accelerate problem-solving across diverse teams and individuals, some organizations have recently started to use the Design Thinking (DT) process as...

Supererogation in Organizations: Going Beyond Duty in a Morally Praiseworthy Way

Sergiy Dmytriyev
Consisting of empirical and conceptual parts, the dissertation explains how supererogation – going beyond duty in a morally praiseworthy way – takes place in organizational settings. The empirical part is based on a qualitative study conducted with faculty and staff in three major business schools in the South-East of the United States. The study findings have provided the basis for the development of affectual theory of supererogation. The theory postulates that the process of supererogation...

Fabrication, Characterization, and Application of Heterogeneously Integrated GaAs Schottky Diodes

Souheil Nadri
Gallium arsenide Schottky diodes remain the predominant device technology for implementing sources, detectors, and heterodyne-based components for instruments operating from 100 GHz to more than 4 THz. Developments in submillimeter-wave diode technology have been aimed at improving fabrication yields, lowering device parasitics which degrade the electrical performance, and improving thermal management. In this process, the geometry and implementation of GaAs diodes have evolved from a stand alone whisker contact device to a planar Schottky diode...

Crowd-Sourced Data, Data-Driven Techniques, and Model Predictive Control to Improve Understanding, Prediction, and Mitigation of Urban Coastal Flooding

Jeffrey Sadler
Warmer average global temperatures have already caused and will likely cause further increased flooding in coastal cities. This increased flooding is due to an increase in average storm intensity and a rise in sea level, results of warmer global temperatures. In support of a coastal city’s ability to adapt in place to increased flood risk, this dissertation focuses on understanding, predicting, and mitigating coastal flooding through four studies. Each of the four studies will focus...

Principled Selective Ad Blocking with Taint-Based Exfiltration Protection Policies

Ethan Lowman
We start from the premise that it is a legitimate business model for publishers to provide content in exchange for expecting readers to view advertisements. This implicit agreement, however, should not require privacy and security compromises, which many content consumers identify as a justification for aggressive ad blocking. Rather than escalate the arms race between ad blockers and publishers, we address the privacy and security issues of the advertising ecosystem. In particular, we address the...

Regulation of T cell responses during chronic neuroinflammation: from regulatory T cells to ICOS

Carleigh O'Brien
Control of chronic central nervous system (CNS) infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii requires ongoing inflammatory T cell responses in the brain. With this long-lived inflammatory response required for control of the parasite, understanding how this response occurs without causing debilitating immunopathology, particularly in a largely non-regenerative tissue, is of tremendous interest. Similar to other infection models, regulatory or immunosuppressive mechanisms are in play during chronic T. gondii infection that limit immune-mediated pathology. To explore...

Integration of Interspecies Data for Developing Tissue-Level Brain Injury Risk Functions

Taotao Wu
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are a significant public health burden occurring in automotive crashes, accidents, sports, and in military training and combat. There is a significant interest in understanding the tolerance of the human brain to external mechanical loads with the ultimate objective of mitigation and prevention of TBI. Early TBI research focused on understanding the injury mechanisms in animals, and the latest research focus has been on collecting exposure data in humans that routinely...

An effective and inexpensive strategy to identify multiplex CRISPR-edited plants

Renyu Li
Since its first introduction in 2013, CRISPR-Cas9 has become the preferred gene targeting tool to produce loss-of-function mutants in plants. In spite of the high specificity and ease of use, the identification of CRISPR-edited plants has remained a time consuming and onerous process. I have developed and tested an easy-to-use and inexpensive strategy to select for multiplex CRISPR mutagenized Arabidopsis plants. This strategy is based on targeting the gene/s of interest simultaneously with a proxy...

The Sources of Interpersonal Well-Being Judgments

Hyewon Choi
Previous research has shown that self-reports of well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect) moderately agree with other-reports of one’s well-being. Less is known, however, about how and why such agreement occurs. Using Brunswik’s lens model, I examined with what cues people signal their well-being and what cues people use to judge others’ well-being and then explored the sources of self-other agreement in well-being judgments. In Studies 1 and 2, strangers provided others’ reports on...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    584

Resource Types

  • Text
    584

Affiliations

  • University of Virginia
    8