2 Works

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on learning (LIEPP Working Paper, n°134)

Bastian A. Betthäuser, Anders Bach-Mortensen & Per Engzell
How has the COVID-19 pandemic affected learning progress among school-age children? Two years after the onset of the pandemic, a growing number of studies have addressed this question, but findings vary depending on context. We conduct a pre-registered systematic review, quality appraisal and meta-analysis of 34 studies across 12 countries to assess the magnitude of the effect of the pandemic on learning and the role of different factors in moderating this effect. We find a...

A Bismarckian Type of Fiscal Welfare? Insights on the Use of Social Tax Expenditures in French Social and Employment Policy ( LIEPP Working Paper, n° 65)

Nathalie Morel, Chloé Touzet & Michaël Zemmour
This article argues that situated approaches are necessary to reveal institu-tion-specific or regime specific structures, forms and uses of fiscal welfare instruments. We base our analysis on the French case, for which we have previously built an exhaustive database of social tax expenditures (STEs) for the year 2014. We find that France displays a specific structure of fiscal welfare. Most STEs are concentrated in the fields of employment, family and health policy; most STEs concern...

Registration Year

  • 2022

Resource Types

  • Other


  • University of Oxford
  • Sciences Po
  • University of Lille