149 Works

Congenital urogenital abnormalities in children

Gitte M. Hvistendahl & Yazan F. Rawashdeh
Congenital urogenital abnormalities cover a wide range of conditions, both anatomically and functionally, which may cause UTI, renal scarring and end stage renal disease. Obstructive uropathy seems to be one of the more important disorders to diagnose and follow to prevent UTI and deterioration of kidney function. However, evidence of exactly which anomalies pose the greatest risk and stand to benefit from either prophylactic precautions or surgery is still sparse. The available data for UTI...

2.2.1. Wahrnehmung

Jochen Kaiser
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

Prostate biopsy related infection – Risk factors, prevention strategies and management approaches

Harrison Y. Bennett, Patrick N. Harris, Michael Holmes, Jeremy Grummet & Matthew Roberts
Infectious complications following prostate biopsy are reported to be increasing in incidence with associated individual and public health burden. Complication rates parallel a rise in antibiotic resistant colonisation of rectal flora in patients undergoing biopsy. Following systematic review, risk factors for post biopsy infection, preventative strategies, alternative sampling methods, and management of infectious complications are presented. Risk factors for infection should be identified; including urogenital infection or antibiotic use, international travel, hospital exposure, bacteriuria, or...

Immunology of urinary tract infections

José Antonio Ortega Martell
The urinary tract is constantly exposed to different microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary tract is normally well prepared to resist infections by these microorganisms. This resistance to infection is mainly accomplished by the versatility of the immune system in the urinary tract, with both innate and adaptive immune responses. With the increasing knowledge of how the immune system works in the urinary tract and also the recognition of the virulence attributes...

3.3.4. Der Arzt als Mitglied eines Teams

Lena Ansmann & Holger Pfaff

Introduction

Richarda Böttcher & Anita Eppelin
book chapter

Dupuytren’s disease

David Warwick
book chapter

The stiff proximal interphalangeal joint

David Shewring
book chapter

Diagnosis of uncomplicated cystitis (UC)

Guido Schmiemann & Klaus Gebhardt
Urinary tract infections are among the most common bacterial infections and are responsible for 25% of antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. This chapter presents current evidence from a systematic literature search with a focus on systematic reviews and recent guidelines on diagnosing uncomplicated cystitis (UC). Starting with a general approach on the diagnostic process in suspected UC the pros and cons of different diagnostic strategies are discussed. Due to the high prevalence of UC the...

Polycystic renal disease

Tamara Perepanova & Oleg Apolikhin
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Urinary tract infections (UTI) occur in 21–75% of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and as high as 50% have been reported in patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) during their lifetime. Frequently UTI is the first presentation of the disease. The urinary tract, renal parenchyma and cysts may be involved in the inflammatory process. Renal infection is...

Microbiology and resistance in urogenital tuberculosis

Gernot Bonkat, N. M. Francisco, G. Müller & O. Braissant
Mycobacteria are less common than other infections but still represent a significant threat to patients. Their slow growing nature and the late appearance of symptoms of urogenital mycobacterial infections often result in a delayed diagnostic and more severe consequences. UGTB is mostly linked to an active or inactive lung tuberculosis, as a consequence a similar immune response is expected. Unfortunately, compared to TB, very little is known on specific response to urinary tract infection caused...

Male circumcision protects against urinary tract infections

Brian J. Morris & John N. Krieger
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common, debilitating and can have serious health consequences. UTI can present with severe local and systemic symptoms. Measures to reduce UTI occurrence deserve serious attention. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate data on the association between male circumcision (MC) and UTI. An extensive meta-analysis found that the lifetime risk of UTI in uncircumcised males is 32%, compared with 8.8% in circumcised males (relative risk reduction 3.7-fold)....

Patient contributions to treatment decisions in BPS/IC

Barbara Muendner-Hensen
BPS/IC patients are afflicted with a symptom complex consisting of increased micturition frequency, urinary urgency and bladder pain (frequency, urgency, pain). Because of the obscure aetiology it is important for patients to be involved in treatment decision concerning this condition. To achieve a satisfactory outcome out diagnosis and treatment, the ICA (Interstitial Cystitis Association) Germany e.V., www.ica-ev.de, has established an information platform for patients and physicians. This platform was designed to facilitate collaboration between clinicians...

Medical treatment for urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB)

Christian Wejse
Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) should in general be treated as pulmonary TB with a four-drug regimen of Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide for a total of 6 months, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide only the first two months. Some patients may need longer treatment (cavitary disease, kidney abscess/malfunction, HIV co-infection). Treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires use of long-term intravenous treatment with aminoglycosides and other drugs with considerable toxicity for 18–24 months. Complications such as urinary tract...

Collagenase clostridium histolyticum

Clayton A. Peimer
Chapter of Living Textbook of Hand Surgery

The role of Oxalobacter formigenes in calcium oxalate stone disease

Roswitha Siener
Calcium oxalate is the major component of about 75% of all urinary stones. Hyperoxaluria is a primary risk factor for calcium oxalate stone formation. The bioavailability of ingested oxalate and the extent of intestinal absorption of dietary oxalate are considered to be important factors in hyperoxaluria. Oxalobacter formigenes is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the intestinal tract. It is unique in that it requires oxalate both as an energy and carbon source. The only...

Microsurgical techniques for vascular anastomoses

Franck Marie Leclère & Esther Voegelin
The book chapter is part of: Handchirurgie Weltweit e.V., editor. Living Textbook of Hand Surgery. Cologne: GMS; 2014-.

Itching and burning symptoms in the female urogenital tract

Eiko E. Petersen & Kurt G. Naber
The spectrum of the causes of burning pain and itching in the female urogenital tract is broad ranging from harmless vaginal discharge, urinary tract infection, chronic dermatosis to painful primary herpes genitalis, and from the only clinically diagnosable Behçet syndrome to the vulvitis/colpitis caused by A-streptococci, which can lead to a fatal sepsis. Increasing skin damage occurs frequently, which, however, can be avoided by better care. With appropriate experience, most diagnoses can be made based...

Which antibiotics are used in urology worldwide

Mete Çek & Truls Erik Bjerklund Johansen
A literature search of meta-analyses and reviews on the use of antibiotics in urology was made, and papers included were reviewed. The use of antibiotics in certain urological conditions and the clinical results obtained are discussed in light of these meta-analyses and reviews. The results of the Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology studies on usage of antibiotics for nosocomially acquired urinary tract infections and for prophylaxis before urological interventions are also reviewed and compared...

2.3.1. Die Betrachtung wichtiger Eigenschaften

Margraf-Stiksrud Jutta
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

Epidemiology, classification, clinical features, and diagnostics of urogenital tuberculosis

Ekaterina Kulchavenya, Mitsuru Yasuda & Magnus Grabe
Tuberculosis of the kidney, urinary tract and genital tracts (male and female) has followed mankind’s history. During the last century, the number of cases of tuberculosis, pulmonary as extra-pulmonary, has decreased with the social and economic developments. However, in low and middle income countries the trend is still to an increase in the incidence of the disease, especially in populations associated with immunocompromised conditions (e.g. HIV). Large migration of population over the world is also...

Evaluation of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

Giuseppe Magistro & J. Curtis Nickel
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition defined as chronic (at least 3 months) pain or discomfort in the pelvic region, variably associated with lower urinary tract symptoms, sexual dysfunction and psychosocial consequences with considerable impact on quality of life. Since the exact pathophysiology underlying CP/CPPS is still unknown, no specific test for a definitive diagnosis is available. The main objectives for evaluation are to exclude differential diagnoses associated with pelvic pain...

3.3. Ärztliches Handeln und das Gesundheitssystem

Holger Pfaff

2.4. Entwicklung und Sozialisation im Lebenslauf

Jutta Margraf-Stiksrud & Matthias Richter

Phimosis and urinary tract infection: An Asian perspective

Akihiro Kanematsu & Shingo Yamamoto
Circumcision, the surgical removal of the prepuce, has originally been performed as a ritual procedure among people of certain religions and ethnicities. There are many studies on whether this procedure has advantageous effects on the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI), mainly from North America and Australia, where circumcision prevalence is between 20 and 80%. Bacterial colonization in the prepuce is documented in literature and could be a legitimate reason why catheterization, but not the...

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