149 Works

Sustainable packaging solutions to improve resource efficiency in supply chains of perishable products

Sophia Dohlen, Antonia Albrecht & Judith Kreyenschmidt
The production of high quality and safe foods has increased steadily in recent years. At the same time, a sustainable food production gains in importance. Sustainability aspects include several different aspects, such as for example the energy efficiency of production and cooling plants, the logistic concepts, animal welfare aspects or the energy supply concepts. Especially the reduction of waste along the entire supply chain is increasingly discussed in public. The application of innovative packaging strategies...

Antibiotic consumption and resistance of gram-negative pathogens (collateral damage)

Milan Cizman & Tina Plankar Srovin
Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in community and hospital care. Overuse and misuse favors emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. The ATC/DDD methodology is commonly used for presenting the drug utilization data. In primary care, the consumption is usually expressed in DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day, in hospital, preferably in DDD per 100 bed days and DDD per 100 admissions. The alternative metric is days of therapy (DOT), which needs IT support. Antibiotics have ecological...

MRSA in urology

Satoshi Takahashi
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the main pathogen in healthcare-associated infections (HAI) worldwide, especially in hospitals and long-term care facilities. In the field of urology, however, there is a lack of comprehensive studies on MRSA infections. Therefore, urological infections caused by MRSA need to be examined more carefully in clinical trials, because urinary tract infections (UTI) and surgical site infections (SSI) caused by MRSA are both important HAI. Treatment of MRSA infection is usually empirical,...

Basics in clinical neurophysiology: Nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography in nerve entrapment syndromes

Wolfgang Löscher & Christian Bischoff
The following chapter provides an overview about the principles of nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography. Emphasis is given to its application in the diagnostic evaluation of entrapment syndromes of the upper extremity. Typical findings in frequent entrapment syndromes are described as well as grading systems. Relevant indications and limitations are discussed.

2.3.3. Die Gesamtheit des individuellen Lebenslaufs: Biographie und Identität

Jutta Margraf-Stiksrud

3.4.3. Qualitätssicherung wissenschaftlichen Arbeitens

Katharina Piontek & Hans-Joachim Hannich

3.3.3. Arbeitsbedingungen von Ärzten

Sophie E. Groß & Holger Pfaff

Aluminium – Addendum for evaluation of a BAR. Assessment Values in Biological Material – Translation of the German version from 2019

Katrin Klotz, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &

Polytetrafluoroethene. MAK Value Documentation – Translation of the German version from 2019

Andrea Hartwig &

2.2.3. Lernen und Verhalten

Stefan Watzke

Pharmacotherapy, steroid injection, fat graft, PIP external fixators and other techniques

Maarten Van Nuffel & Ilse Degreef
book chapter

The cell biology of Dupuytren’s disease

Sarah Al-Himdani & Ardy Bayat
book chapter

Radiotherapy for Dupuytren’s disease

Richard Shaffer
book chapter

Dupuytren's disease - the role of hand therapy

Catherine Ball & Anna Pratt
book chapter

Asymptomatic bacteriuria in recurrent UTI – to treat or not to treat

Tommaso Cai & Riccardo Bartoletti
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is a common clinical condition that often leads to unnecessary antimicrobial use. The reduction of antibiotic overuse for ABU is consequently an important issue for antimicrobial stewardship to reduce the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. In the clinical setting we have an important issue that requires special attention: the role of ABU in women affected by recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs). In everyday clinical practice, young women affected by rUTI show after...

Bladder pain syndrome: differences in diagnostic strategies around the world

Philip Hanno
Nomenclature for the syndrome commonly referred to as bladder pain syndrome is in flux. In the United States the disorder is interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome reflecting one entity. This reflects the need to keep the term interstitial cystitis for health insurance purposes. In Europe bladder pain syndrome is now the well-accepted nomenclature. In Asia, the situation in more complex. The terms frequency/urgency syndrome, hypersensitive bladder syndrome, painful bladder syndrome, and interstitial cystitis all carry different...

Invasive therapy for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC)

Claus Riedl
This chapter summarizes our present experience with invasive regimen in BPS/IC therapy. A broad spectrum of interventions including simple endoscopic procedures as well as extensive surgery are performed in this indication. Hydrodistension, fulguration of Hunner’s lesions, sacral neuromodulation and cystectomy may all give significant symptom relief to BPS/IC patients, however, the efficacy is not perfectly predictable. Thus, patient selection is crucial, and our algorithms for precise selection of patients for each procedure still are improvable.

Urinary microbiota analyzed by extended microbiology in subjects with and without urological disorders

Yulia Naboka & Michael Kogan
A healthy person’s urine is not a sterile environment, and its microbiota contain a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, with Gram-positive aerobic microorganisms predominating. There are significant differences between the urinary microbiota of healthy men and women. The composition of healthy women’s urinary microbiota depends on age and sexual activity. Non-clostridial anaerobic bacteria (NAB) predominate Enterobacteriaceae in case of acute obstructive pyelonephritis with bacteriuria of 104 CFU/ml and higher. Experiments...

Infection induced urinary stones

Walter Ludwig Strohmaier
Stones composed of struvite, carbonate apatite and ammonium urate are regarded as induced by urinary tract infection (UTI) with bacteria producing the enzyme urease (mainly Proteus species) which splits urea into ammonium and carbonate ions resulting in supersaturation and alkalization of the urine. Struvite and apatite crystals form and grow to stones. Compared to other mineral types infection induced stones (IIS) represent only a small percentage of urinary stones. Nevertheless they deserve special attention. Due...

Treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis

Gianpaolo Perletti, Florian M. E. Wagenlehner, Visnja Skerk & Vittorio Magri
Bacterial infection of the prostate can be demonstrated by the Meares and Stamey 4-glass or the pre and post prostate massage (PPM) 2-glass test in only about 10% of men with symptoms of chronic prostatitis. NIH-category II chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is mainly caused by Gram-negative uropathogens, whereas the role of certain Gram-positive and sexually-transmitted pathogens is still discussed. For treatment, fluoroquinolones are considered the drugs of choice because of their favorable pharmacokinetic properties and...

Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy – Is it still necessary to screen and treat?

Caroline Schneeberger & Brenda Kazemier
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy occurs in 2–10% of pregnant women although higher frequencies have also been reported, up to 40%. Pregnant women are more prone to develop urinary tract infections (UTI) because of dilatation of the renal system and decreased peristalsis of the ureters and bladder facilitating bacterial colonisation and ascending infection in pregnancy. Enterobacteriaceae comprise approximately the majority of urine isolates, of which Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen. A urine culture...

HIV infection in urological practice

Seong-Heon Wie
The present review investigates the association between the presence of urological disorders and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study suggests that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can increase the risk of infecting sexual partner or being infected with HIV. However, community-based STI control was not proved to be an effective HIV prevention strategy, although a few clinical trials revealed the possibility that aggressive treatment of STIs could decrease the transmission of HIV in...

Tuberculosis as a reason for male and female sexual dysfunction

Ekaterina Kulchavenya & Victor Khomyakov
Tuberculosis (TB) is second only to HIV/AIDS as the greatest killer worldwide due to a single infectious agent. In 2016, 10.4 million people were affected by TB with more than 1.3 million deaths. One fifth of all TB related death were suffering of HIV. Eighty percent of male patients with pulmonary TB are young men. The problem of the influence of pulmonary TB on the sexual function in men has been covered in medical literature...

Prevention of prematurity by early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial urogenital infections – The role of bacterial vaginosis

Udo B Hoyme
Bacterial vaginosis has a significant relative risk for miscarriage or prematurity of 1.4–6.9%. In the initial Erfurt trial 0.3% of the neonates with gestational age less than 32+0 weeks were seen in an intervention group vs. 3.3% (p less than .01) in the control group; in the Thuringia campaign the figures were 0.94% vs. 1.36% (p less than .01) for the entire state. The rate of newborns less than 1,000 g was reduced to 0.38%,...

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