72 Works

2. Grundlagen der Psychologie und Soziologie und ihre Bedeutung für die Medizin

Renate Deinzer & Olaf von dem Knesebeck
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

2.1. Psychobiologische Grundlagen

Ursula Stockhorst

1. Einleitung

Renate Deinzer & Olaf von dem Knesebeck
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

2.5.2. Die Perspektive der Umwelt: Soziale Normen und Rollen

Stefanie Sperlich & Siegfried Geyer
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

5. Medizinpsychologische und Medizinsoziologische Anwendungsfelder

Renate Deinzer & Olaf von dem Knesebeck

2.2.1. Wahrnehmung

Jochen Kaiser
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

Prevention of catheter-associated UTI

Paul Anantharajah Tambyah, Leyland Chuang & Edmund Chiong
We surveyed existing guidelines and literature on the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Key principles include avoiding unnecessary urinary catheterization, maintaining a closed aseptic drainage system and minimizing duration of catheterization. Institutional guidelines on appropriate indications for catheterization, reminder and stop-order systems, and policies on restricted urinary catheterization and nurse-directed catheter removal are effective and recommended. Urinary catheter care bundles and infection control interventions described in various guidelines are summarized and should be...

Prostate biopsy related infection – Risk factors, prevention strategies and management approaches

Harrison Y. Bennett, Patrick N. Harris, Michael Holmes, Jeremy Grummet & Matthew Roberts
Infectious complications following prostate biopsy are reported to be increasing in incidence with associated individual and public health burden. Complication rates parallel a rise in antibiotic resistant colonisation of rectal flora in patients undergoing biopsy. Following systematic review, risk factors for post biopsy infection, preventative strategies, alternative sampling methods, and management of infectious complications are presented. Risk factors for infection should be identified; including urogenital infection or antibiotic use, international travel, hospital exposure, bacteriuria, or...

Congenital urogenital abnormalities in children

Gitte M. Hvistendahl & Yazan F. Rawashdeh
Congenital urogenital abnormalities cover a wide range of conditions, both anatomically and functionally, which may cause UTI, renal scarring and end stage renal disease. Obstructive uropathy seems to be one of the more important disorders to diagnose and follow to prevent UTI and deterioration of kidney function. However, evidence of exactly which anomalies pose the greatest risk and stand to benefit from either prophylactic precautions or surgery is still sparse. The available data for UTI...

Nerve injury: Classification, clinical assessment, investigation, and management

Timothy E. Hems
Seddon’s classification of nerve injuries into three categories, neurapraxia, axonotmesis, and neurotmesis provides a basis for assessment, prognosis, and management. The clinical history and examination are paramount in assessing the extent and severity of nerve injury. Investigations, including neurophysiology testing and imaging with MRI or ultrasound, may give extra diagnostic information. Open nerve injuries require exploration and repair within a few days. Closed stretch or compression injuries may warrant early exploration or can be managed...

Cold chain conditions of meat and dairy products in Mexican retail food stores

Ema Maldonado, JL Zaragoza-Ramírez, PA Martínez-Hernández, CC González-Ariceaga & JL García-Méndez
Domestic and international markets show growing concern on food safety and shelf life of perishable animal products that can be affected by cold chain storage conditions in retail food stores. Official Mexican Norms (OMN) determine the official values applied to these animal food products under those conditions. The purpose of this study was to compare cold chain conditions of meat and dairy products among five retail food stores established in a local municipality of Mexico...

Sex and other host factors influencing urinary tract infection pathogenesis

Patrick D. Olson & David A. Hunstad
Biological sex represents the most important host factor that influences urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are most commonly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UTI susceptibility varies by sex and age throughout the patient lifespan, although the disease disproportionally afflicts women throughout the middle ages. Substantial male patient populations are also affected, and morbidity in complicated UTI is higher in men. This review highlights sex-related discrepancies in the disease, and how sex may influence the...

Treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome – UPOINT

Aaron C. Shoskes, Dominic Tran-Nguyen & Daniel Shoskes
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition, however many common therapies used in practice fail to show benefit when subjected to large randomized controlled trials. This discrepancy may be because CP/CPPS is a heterogeneous syndrome rather than one specific disease, which can explain the prior failure of any one therapy for all patients. In order to direct appropriate therapy, a six-point clinical phenotyping system was developed to evaluate patients with CP/CPPS. The...

Antibiotic therapy in patients with renal impairment

Frieder Keller
Every second drug needs dose adjustment to kidney function. The Cockcroft and Gault formula gives an estimate of the individual kidney function whereas the CKD-EPI and other formulas state only the standardized GFR. Pharmacokinetics should be considered to avoid accumulation and toxic drug effects. Pharmacodynamics should be considered to avoid sub therapeutic under dosage. High peak concentrations are the target for antibiotics with a concentration-dependent action (gentamicin, amikacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxicin, daptomycin, linezolid, colistin and most...

Polycystic renal disease

Tamara Perepanova & Oleg Apolikhin
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Urinary tract infections (UTI) occur in 21–75% of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and as high as 50% have been reported in patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) during their lifetime. Frequently UTI is the first presentation of the disease. The urinary tract, renal parenchyma and cysts may be involved in the inflammatory process. Renal infection is...

Patient contributions to treatment decisions in BPS/IC

Barbara Muendner-Hensen
BPS/IC patients are afflicted with a symptom complex consisting of increased micturition frequency, urinary urgency and bladder pain (frequency, urgency, pain). Because of the obscure aetiology it is important for patients to be involved in treatment decision concerning this condition. To achieve a satisfactory outcome out diagnosis and treatment, the ICA (Interstitial Cystitis Association) Germany e.V., www.ica-ev.de, has established an information platform for patients and physicians. This platform was designed to facilitate collaboration between clinicians...

Medical treatment for urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB)

Christian Wejse
Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) should in general be treated as pulmonary TB with a four-drug regimen of Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide for a total of 6 months, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide only the first two months. Some patients may need longer treatment (cavitary disease, kidney abscess/malfunction, HIV co-infection). Treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires use of long-term intravenous treatment with aminoglycosides and other drugs with considerable toxicity for 18–24 months. Complications such as urinary tract...

Itching and burning symptoms in the female urogenital tract

Eiko E. Petersen & Kurt G. Naber
The spectrum of the causes of burning pain and itching in the female urogenital tract is broad ranging from harmless vaginal discharge, urinary tract infection, chronic dermatosis to painful primary herpes genitalis, and from the only clinically diagnosable Behçet syndrome to the vulvitis/colpitis caused by A-streptococci, which can lead to a fatal sepsis. Increasing skin damage occurs frequently, which, however, can be avoided by better care. With appropriate experience, most diagnoses can be made based...

Male circumcision protects against urinary tract infections

Brian J. Morris & John N. Krieger
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common, debilitating and can have serious health consequences. UTI can present with severe local and systemic symptoms. Measures to reduce UTI occurrence deserve serious attention. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate data on the association between male circumcision (MC) and UTI. An extensive meta-analysis found that the lifetime risk of UTI in uncircumcised males is 32%, compared with 8.8% in circumcised males (relative risk reduction 3.7-fold)....

Genital infections during pregnancy

José Tirán Saucedo
Genital infections during pregnancy are a major health problem in many parts of the world, with the particularity of being responsible for complications to the mother and infant, on top of being a burden to the health system. This chapter will be a discussion of the main genital infections during pregnancy: candidiasis, trichomoniasis, herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis and human papillomavirus. Many of their complications are pregnancy-related for which a prompt diagnosis, effective...

Phimosis and urinary tract infection: An Asian perspective

Akihiro Kanematsu & Shingo Yamamoto
Circumcision, the surgical removal of the prepuce, has originally been performed as a ritual procedure among people of certain religions and ethnicities. There are many studies on whether this procedure has advantageous effects on the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI), mainly from North America and Australia, where circumcision prevalence is between 20 and 80%. Bacterial colonization in the prepuce is documented in literature and could be a legitimate reason why catheterization, but not the...

2.4. Entwicklung und Sozialisation im Lebenslauf

Jutta Margraf-Stiksrud & Matthias Richter

HIV infection in urological practice

Seong-Heon Wie
The present review investigates the association between the presence of urological disorders and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study suggests that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can increase the risk of infecting sexual partner or being infected with HIV. However, community-based STI control was not proved to be an effective HIV prevention strategy, although a few clinical trials revealed the possibility that aggressive treatment of STIs could decrease the transmission of HIV in...

4.2. Strukturelle Aspekte der Arzt-Patient-Beziehung

Olaf von dem Knesebeck
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

2.2.7. Emotionen und psychische Belastung

Corina Aguilar-Raab & Beate Ditzen

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Text


  • University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf
  • Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
  • Düsseldorf University Hospital
  • University of Cologne
  • Humboldt University of Berlin
  • University of Bern
  • Universitätsmedizin Rostock
  • University of Konstanz