158 Works

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) – Evaluation of EKA and a BAR

Katrin Klotz

Benzene, benzyl chloride and toluene – Determination of S-phenylmercapturic acid and S-benzylmercapturic acid in urine by LC-MS/MS

Thomas Schettgen, Anita Musiol, Gerhard Scherer & Katharina Sterz

Trikresylphosphat, Summe aller ortho-Isomere – Evaluierung von Untersuchungsergebnissen in biologischem Material

Dirk Pallapies, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &


Andrea Hartwig &

Ethics in experiments on live cattle: a pragmatic approach

Isabelle Veissier, Véronique Deiss, Mette Herskin, Emer Kennedy & Kenny Rutherford
There are ongoing philosophical, moral, and societal debates about experiments on live animals. Along with a consequentialist approach, it may be considered that an action – here an experiment on live animals – is morally acceptable if the knowledge it aims to produce can result in an overall benefit. In other words, it is acceptable if the constraints imposed on the animals involved are outweighed by the larger benefits expected for others (humans or animals)....

A checklist to validate sensor output for the recording of cattle behaviour

Matthieu Bouchon, Alex Bach, Bruno Meunier, Emma Ternman, Kees Van Reenen, Isabelle Veissier & Lene Munksgaard
A process of validation assesses the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose within a specific context. Ideally, the validation of a tool should describe the range of purposes and contexts in which it is appropriate. This generally cannot be done completely. Therefore, when such a wide validation cannot be done, the validation process needs to refer clearly to the purpose of the use of the tool and to which animals it...

Lying, standing, and eating behaviour

Lene Munksgaard, Emma Ternman, Isabelle Veissier, Carol-Anne Duthie & René Baumont
Standing and lying behaviours are well-defined. Lying is often described as when the flank or sternum of the animal is in contact with the ground, and end of lying when all four legs are perpendicular to the body. The transition from lying to standing and vice versa requires only a few seconds, and therefore differences in the description of lying do not greatly affect the calculation of time spent lying or standing. By contrast, if...

Rumination activity

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Lene Munksgaard, René Baumont, Björn Kuhla & David Humphries
The daily rumination pattern in cattle is influenced by different factors such as feeding frequency, physical and chemical characteristics of the diet, feeding time, fasting, photoperiod and grazing management. Studies have observed an apparent decrease in rumination activity in ruminal acidosis or mastitis challenging dairy cattle. Social and physical environment can also affect cattle’s rumination behaviour. Manual observation of eating and rumination in individual animal is time-consuming and labour intensive. Therefore, the need for developing...

Behavioural tests

Emma Ternman, Guilherme Amorim Franchi & Lene Munksgaard
o answer specific questions regarding cow behaviour or affective states, it is sometimes necessary to study the cow’s responses to specific stimuli in a test situation. This can be done either in the animal’s home environment or in a test arena. As specific research questions determine the test design, it is not possible to provide a general guideline that fits all types of behavioural test. However, there are several considerations common for most behaviour tests...

Neuropathy target esterase inhibitors – Evaluation of study results in biological material

Simone Schmitz-Spanke, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &

Triphenyl phosphate, isopropylated (isopropylated phenyl phosphates, IPPhP) – Determination of isopropylated phenyl phosphates in the workplace air using gas chromatography (GC-MS)

Wolfgang Rosenberger, Sven Schuchardt, Ralph Hebisch, Thomas H. Brock, Andrea Hartwig &

2.8.1. Biopsychosoziale Zusammenhäng bei Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen

Johannes Siegrist
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

Di(2‑propylheptyl) phthalate – Determination of mono(2‑propyl-6‑carboxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2‑propyl-6‑hydroxyheptyl) phthalate, and mono(2‑propyl-6‑oxoheptyl) phthalate in urine by GC-HR-MS or GC-MS/MS

Wolfgang Gries, Christoph Schmidtkunz, Gabriele Leng, Michael Müller, Martina Lange, Thomas Göen, Andrea Hartwig &

List of MAK and BAT Values 2021

o-Phenylphenol (OPP) – Bestimmung von o-Phenylphenol in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz mittels Hochleistungsflüssigchromatographie (HPLC-DAD)

George Dragan, Ralph Hebisch, Adela Frenzen, Lutz Nitschke, Andrea Hartwig &
This analytical method is a validated measurement procedure for the determination of o-phenylphenol [90-43-7] in workplace air in a concentration range of one tenth up to twice the currently valid occupational exposure limit in Germany of 5 mg/m3. For sampling a defined volume of air is drawn through a binder-free quartz fibre filter followed by a silica gel sorbent tube. The flow rate is set to 1 l/min and sampling duration is 2 hours (which...

Toluol – Addendum: Evaluierung einer Schwangerschaftsgruppe zu den BAT-Werten

Wobbeke Weistenhöfer, Gerlinde Schriever-Schwemmer, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &
In 2020, the German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area re-evaluated toluene [108-88-3] regarding reproductive and developmental toxicity. Provided the maximum workplace concentration (MAK value) of 50 ml/m3 is observed, prenatal toxic effects are not to be expected. Toluene was therefore classified in Pregnancy Risk Group C in 1993, which was confirmed in 2020. The biological tolerance values (BAT values) of 600 µg toluene/l blood, 75 µg...

Methanol – Addendum: re-evaluation of the BAT value

Patricia Kreis, Britta Brinkmann, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &
In 2018, the German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has lowered the maximum concentration at the workplace (MAK value) for methanol [67-56-1] to 100 ml/m3. The biological tolerance value (BAT value) was correlated to the MAK value. Therefore, the BAT value has to be re-evaluated. After 8-hour exposure of test persons to 100 ml methanol/m3 with physical activity, a concentration of 15 mg methanol/l urine was...


Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated 1,1-dimethylhydrazine [51-14-7] considering all toxicological end points. The acute toxicity of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine is caused by depletion of gamma-aminobutyric acid leading to the effects on the central nervous system. During chronic and subchronic exposure, adverse effects on the blood, liver, nervous system, colon and spleen were observed in dogs and adverse effects on the liver and colon were...

Observational study over 8-year period evaluating microbiological characteristics and risk factor for isolation of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in patients with healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) hospitalized in a urology ward in Urogenital Infections and Inflammations

José Medina-Polo, Javier Gil-Moradillo, Alejandro González-Díaz, Pablo Abad-López, Rocío Santos-Pérez de la Blanca, Mario Hernández-Arroyo, Helena Peña-Vallejo, Julio Téigell-Tobar, Cristina Calzas-Montalvo, Prado Caro-González, Natalia Miranda-Utrera & Ángel Tejido-Sánchez
Objective: To analyze, in a urology ward, the prevalence and characteristics of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) due to multidrug-resis­tant organisms (MDRO). Methods: We carried out an observational study from 2012 to 2019, evaluating MDRO among patients with HAIs, who were hospitalized in the urology ward. MDRO include Pseudomonas spp., resistant to at least three antibiotic groups, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae or those resistant to carbapenems, and Enterococcus spp. resistant to vancomycin. Results: Among patients with...

Kohlenmonoxid – Addendum zur Reevaluierung des BAT-Wertes

Britta Brinkmann, Rüdiger Bartsch, Christoph van Thriel, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated the biological tolerance value (BAT value) of carbon monoxide (CO) [630-08-0]. Exercising healthy test persons became significantly faster exhausted at CO exposures resulting in a CO-Hb content of 3.35 to 5.1%. This was only observed with very high physical activity (minute volume of 100 l/min) which is much higher than that assumed to be realistic in workplaces...

Dichloroacetic acid and its salts

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated dichloroacetic acid [79-43-6] to derive a maximum concentration at the workplace (MAK value) and to review its carcinogenicity classification. The critical effects are irritation, carcinogenicity in the liver of rats and mice as well as neurotoxicity. After oral application, dichloroacetic acid or its sodium salt has tumour-promoting effects and is carcinogenic in the liver of rats and...


Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated triphenyl phosphate [115-86-6] considering all toxicological end points. Triphenyl phosphate is not neurotoxic in hens and rats and not irritating to the eyes and skin of rabbits. In a 13-week toxicity study with rats, hepatocellular hypertrophy and follicle cell hypertrophy in the thyroid gland started to be not adversly induced at a triphenyl phosphate dose of 105...

Gadolinium – Evaluation of study results in biological material

Bernhard Michalke, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has evaluated the background concentration of gadolinium [7440-54-2] in occupationally not exposed persons of the general population without gadolinium application for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Available publications are described in detail.In total, only few publications on the background exposure to gadolinium could be found, some of which used different analytical methods and different sample matrices (urine, blood, serum). Gadolinium...

Pigment Yellow 12, Pigment Yellow 13, Pigment Yellow 83

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has evaluated Pigment Yellow 12 [6358-85-6], Pigment Yellow 13 [5102-83-0] and Pigment Yellow 83 [5567-15-7] considering all toxicological end points. Depending on their intended use, the pigments are produced in different sizes with a d50 ranging from 15 to 250 nm. In technical applications, particles smaller than 100 nm are called nanoparticles. By definition, pigments are not soluble in...

Glycidol – Ableitung eines BAR

Thomas Göen, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Text
  • Journal Article
  • Other


  • Jena University Hospital
  • University Hospital in Halle
  • Hospital Universitario 12 De Octubre
  • Technical University of Munich
  • Ospedale Santa Chiara
  • Oslo University Hospital
  • Witten/Herdecke University
  • University Hospital Heidelberg
  • Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
  • Essen University Hospital