121 Works

Kresol (alle Isomere) – Addendum: Reevaluierung von BLW und BAT-Wert

Albert Rettenmeier, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated cresol (all isomers) [1319-77-3] and evaluated a maximum workplace concentration (MAK value) of 1 ml cresol/m3. Only one study has been published in which the relationship between external exposure to cresol and cresol excretion in urine was investigated. However, the time-weighted average of external exposure in this study was far below the current MAK value. Data on...

Dichlormethan, Trichlormethan, Tetrachlormethan, 1,2‑Dichlorethan, 1,1,1‑Trichlorethan, Trichlorethen und Tetrachlorethen – Bestimmung von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in Blut mittels Headspace‑GC-MS

Thomas Göen, Johannes Müller, Bernd Roßbach, Kerstin Lüddens-Dämgen, Thomas Göen, Andrea Hartwig &
The working group “Analyses in Biological Materials“ of the Permanent Senate Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area developed and verified the presented biomonitoring method.The analytical method described herein allows the simultaneous determination of dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, 1,2‑dichloroethane, 1,1,1‑trichloroethane, trichloroethene, and tetrachloroethene in blood. For determination, the blood samples are filled into sealed headspace sample vials and heated to 50 °C in a headspace-autosampler. Afterwards, an aliquot is...

Aluminium silicate fibres (refractory ceramic fibres, RCF)

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated aluminium silicate fibres considering all toxicological endpoints. Aluminium silicate fibres cause mesotheliomas and lung tumours in rats and hamsters. In epidemiological studies, cancer risk was not associated with exposure to aluminium silicate fibres. Tumour formation in animals is a result of chronic inflammation; therefore, aluminium silicate fibres are a candidate for Carcinogen Category 4. However, the re-evaluation...

Monomethylhydrazin

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated monomethylhydrazine [60-34-4] considering all toxicological end points. The acute toxicity of monomethylhydrazine is caused by depletion of gamma-aminobutyric acid leading to the effects on the central nervous system. Chronic and subchronic exposure induces haemolytic effects and adverse effects on the liver. In carcinogenicity studies, inhaled monomethylhydrazine caused tumours of the lungs, liver, blood vessels and olfactory epithelium...

Chlormethan

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated methyl chloride [74-87-3], considering all toxicological end points. Critical effects are neurotoxicity and reduced fertility. The NOAEC for adverse effects on fertility in male rats after 3-month exposure was 150 ml/m. A NAEC of 100 ml/mfor reduced fertility in male rats was estimated from a 2-year study.The NOAEC for degenerations of the cerebellar granular layer is 150...

4-Nitroaniline

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated 4-nitroaniline [100-01-6] considering all toxicological end points. Available publications are described in detail. The critical effect of 4-nitroaniline is methaemoglobin formation in humans and animals. 4-Nitroaniline induces mutations in bacteria and is clastogenic to mammalian cells, although not in vivo. Long-term animal studies did not demonstrate that the germ cells are reached. Compared with other aromatic amino...

2,2′-Thiobis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol)

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has evaluated 2,2′-thiobis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) [90-66-4] considering all toxicological end points. 2,2′-Thiobis(4-methyl-6-tertbutylphenol) is neither irritating to the human skin in vitro nor irritating to the eyes of rabbits. In a gavage study carried out according to OECD Test Guideline 422, the incidence and severity (minimal to slight) of follicular hypertrophy in the thyroid glands of male rats were increased at 150...

4-Nitrobenzoic acid

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has evaluated 4-nitrobenzoic acid [62-23-7]. Available study reports and publications are described in detail. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid caused a statistically significantly increased incidence of adenomas and of the sum of adenomas and carcinomas of the clitoris gland in female F344 rats in an oral, 2-year carcinogenicity study at doses of 60 mg/kg body weight and day and above. The incidence...

Nitrilotriacetic acid and its sodium salts

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated the Carcinogen Category, the maximum concentration at the workplace (MAK value) and the Pregnancy Risk Group of nitrilotriacetic acid [139-13-9] and its sodium salts [18994-66-6, 15467-20-6, 23255-03-0, 5064-31-3, 18662-53-8]. Available publications and unpublished study reports are described in detail. Nitrilotriacetic acid and its sodium salts cause an increased incidence of carcinomas of the kidneys and urinary tract...

N,N-Dimethylacetamid – Addendum: Evaluierung der Schwangerschaftsgruppe zum BAT-Wert

Wobbeke Weistenhöfer, Sandra Michaelsen, Gerlinde Schriever-Schwemmer, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &
In 2017, the German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated the maximum workplace concentration (MAK value) of N,N-dimethylacetamide [127-19-5]. If the MAK value of 5 ml N,N-dimethylacetamide/m3 (18 mg/m3) is not exceeded, prenatal toxic effects are not to be expected and Pregnancy Risk Group C was confirmed. In 2019, the biological tolerance value (BAT value) of 25 mg N-methylacetamide plus N-hydroxymethyl-N-methylacetamide/l urine was derived in...

Platin – Bestimmung von Platin in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz mittels Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie (AAS)

Anita Woznica, Ralph Hebisch, Petra Möller, Katrin Pitzke, Andrea Hartwig &
The analytical method described here permits the determination of platinum in the inhalable particle fraction in workplace air in a concentration range of one tenth up to twice the currently valid Occupational Exposure Limit Value (OELV) in Germany of 1 mg/m3 in the inhalable particle fraction.Sampling is performed by drawing a defined volume of air through a quartz fibre filter using a suitable pump and sampling head. The flow rate is set to 10 l/min...

N-Nitrosamines – Method for the determination of N-nitrosamines in workplace air using gas chromatography with a thermal energy analyzer (GC-TEA) after elution

Yvonne Giesen, Silke Werner, Thomas Helmut Brock, Ralph Hebisch, Andrea Hartwig &
This analytical method is a validated measurement procedure for the determination of 9 N-nitrosamines such as N-nitrosodimethylamine [62-75-962-75-9], N-nitrosomethylethylamine [10595-95-610595-95-6], N-nitrosodiethylamine [55-18-555-18-5], N-nitrosodiisopropylamine [601-77-4601-77-4], N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine [621-64-7621-64-7], N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine [924-16-3924-16-3], N-nitrosopiperidine [100-75-4100-75-4], N-nitrosopyrrolidine [930-55-2930-55-2], N-nitrosomorpholine [59-89-259-89-2] in workplace air averaged over the sampling period after personal or stationary sampling. Sampling is performed by drawing a defined volume of air through a ThermoSorb-N cartridge using a suitable flow-regulated pump. Afterwards the cartridges are eluted with dichloromethane/methanol (3:1, v:v)...

Vinyl chloride – Determination of vinyl chloride in workplace air using gas chromatography. Air Monitoring Method

Michael Tschickardt, Thomas Helmut Brock, Ralph Hebisch, Andrea Hartwig &

Platinum – Determination of platinum in workplace air using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS)

Anita Woznica, Ralph Hebisch, Petra Möller, Katrin Pitzke, Andrea Hartwig &
The analytical method described here permits the determination of platinum in the inhalable particle fraction in workplace air in a concentration range of one tenth up to twice the currently valid Occupational Exposure Limit Value (OELV) in Germany of 1 mg/m3 in the inhalable particle fraction.Sampling is performed by drawing a defined volume of air through a quartz fibre filter using a suitable pump and sampling head. The flow rate is set to 10 l/min...

Xylene (all isomers)

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated the developmental toxicity of xylene [1330-20-7]. In 2019, the maximum concentration at the workplace (MAK value) of xylene was lowered to 50 ml/m3 after taking into account the increased respiratory volume at the workplace (see List of MAK and BAT Values, Section I b and I c). The critical effect of xylene is acute neurotoxicity. Due to...

Selen und seine Verbindungen – Bestimmung von Selenozucker 3 und Trimethylselenonium in Urin mittels Kationenaustausch-Chromatographie-ICP‑MS

Jörg Hildebrand, Thomas Jäger, Thomas Göen, Bernhard Michalke, Andrea Hartwig &
The working group “Analyses in Biological Materials” of the Permanent Senate Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area developed and verified the presented biomonitoring method.This analytical method is used to determine two organic selenium species with cationic character in urine. Selenosugar 3 (SeSug 3) and trimethylselenonium (TMSe) can be separated by cation-exchange chromatography and subsequently detected using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP‑MS). Calibration is performed using standard solutions...

Dicarbonsäuren, kurzkettige – Bestimmung von Oxalsäure, Malonsäure, Bernsteinsäure, Glutarsäure und Adipinsäure in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz mittels Ionenchromatographie (IC)

Ulrich Prott, Ralph Hebisch, Dietmar Breuer, Andrea Hartwig &
The analytical method described here permits the determination of five linear chain aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with 2 to 6 carbon atoms and terminal carboxy groups occurring as inhalable particles in workplace air. The concentration range covers one tenth up to twice the currently valid Occupational Exposure Limit Value (OELV) in Germany, which is 1 mg/m3 for oxalic acid and 2 mg/m3 for succinic, glutaric and adipic acid (inhalable fraction). The peak limitation with an excursion...

Triphenylphosphin

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated the maximum concentration at the workplace (MAK value), the pregnancy risk group, sensitization, absorption through the skin and germ cell mutagenicity of triphenylphosphine [603-35-0]. The critical effect is neurotoxicity which was observed in a four-week study in dogs at a respirable aerosol concentration of 30 mg triphenylphosphine in xylene/m3 with a NOAEC of 10 mg/m3. Based on...

Di(2‑propylheptyl) phthalate – Determination of mono(2‑propyl-6‑carboxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2‑propyl-6‑hydroxyheptyl) phthalate, and mono(2‑propyl-6‑oxoheptyl) phthalate in urine by GC-HR-MS or GC-MS/MS

Wolfgang Gries, Christoph Schmidtkunz, Gabriele Leng, Michael Müller, Martina Lange, Thomas Göen, Andrea Hartwig &

Pigment Yellow 12, Pigment Yellow 13, Pigment Yellow 83

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has evaluated Pigment Yellow 12 [6358-85-6], Pigment Yellow 13 [5102-83-0] and Pigment Yellow 83 [5567-15-7] considering all toxicological end points. Depending on their intended use, the pigments are produced in different sizes with a d50 ranging from 15 to 250 nm. In technical applications, particles smaller than 100 nm are called nanoparticles. By definition, pigments are not soluble in...

Kohlenmonoxid – Addendum zur Reevaluierung des BAT-Wertes

Britta Brinkmann, Rüdiger Bartsch, Christoph van Thriel, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated the biological tolerance value (BAT value) of carbon monoxide (CO) [630-08-0]. Exercising healthy test persons became significantly faster exhausted at CO exposures resulting in a CO-Hb content of 3.35 to 5.1%. This was only observed with very high physical activity (minute volume of 100 l/min) which is much higher than that assumed to be realistic in workplaces...

Dichloroacetic acid and its salts

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated dichloroacetic acid [79-43-6] to derive a maximum concentration at the workplace (MAK value) and to review its carcinogenicity classification. The critical effects are irritation, carcinogenicity in the liver of rats and mice as well as neurotoxicity. After oral application, dichloroacetic acid or its sodium salt has tumour-promoting effects and is carcinogenic in the liver of rats and...

Triphenylphosphat

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated triphenyl phosphate [115-86-6] considering all toxicological end points. Triphenyl phosphate is not neurotoxic in hens and rats and not irritating to the eyes and skin of rabbits. In a 13-week toxicity study with rats, hepatocellular hypertrophy and follicle cell hypertrophy in the thyroid gland started to be not adversly induced at a triphenyl phosphate dose of 105...

Gadolinium – Evaluation of study results in biological material

Bernhard Michalke, Hans Drexler, Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has evaluated the background concentration of gadolinium [7440-54-2] in occupationally not exposed persons of the general population without gadolinium application for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Available publications are described in detail.In total, only few publications on the background exposure to gadolinium could be found, some of which used different analytical methods and different sample matrices (urine, blood, serum). Gadolinium...

2-Chloroethanol

Andrea Hartwig &
The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has re-evaluated 2-chloroethanol [107-07-3107-07-3], considering all toxicological endpoints. Available publications are described in detail. The critical effect is high systemic toxicity with a steep dose-response relationship. The NOAELs are 45, 15, and 45 mg/kg body weight and day in rats, dogs, and monkeys, respectively, after oral administration, and 100 and about 200 mg/kg body weight and day in rats...

Registration Year

  • 2022
    72
  • 2021
    49

Resource Types

  • Journal Article
    121