10 Works

Diagnosis of uncomplicated cystitis (UC)

Guido Schmiemann & Klaus Gebhardt
Urinary tract infections are among the most common bacterial infections and are responsible for 25% of antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. This chapter presents current evidence from a systematic literature search with a focus on systematic reviews and recent guidelines on diagnosing uncomplicated cystitis (UC). Starting with a general approach on the diagnostic process in suspected UC the pros and cons of different diagnostic strategies are discussed. Due to the high prevalence of UC the...

Microsurgical techniques for vascular anastomoses

Franck Marie Leclère & Esther Voegelin
The book chapter is part of: Handchirurgie Weltweit e.V., editor. Living Textbook of Hand Surgery. Cologne: GMS; 2014-.

The role of Oxalobacter formigenes in calcium oxalate stone disease

Roswitha Siener
Calcium oxalate is the major component of about 75% of all urinary stones. Hyperoxaluria is a primary risk factor for calcium oxalate stone formation. The bioavailability of ingested oxalate and the extent of intestinal absorption of dietary oxalate are considered to be important factors in hyperoxaluria. Oxalobacter formigenes is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the intestinal tract. It is unique in that it requires oxalate both as an energy and carbon source. The only...

Comprehensive neuromuscular assessment of chronic pelvic pain (including BPS/IC)

Jörgen Quaghebeur
Patients diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) consult with a variety of symptoms related to organs in the pelvic region, in the absence of a proven infection, pathology or confusable disease. The ESSIC classification of bladder pain syndrome (BPS) according to the results of cystoscopy and of biopsy has to be used for the differentiation between BPS subtypes. A systematic approach is needed trying to understand the problem in CPPS. A four step plan...

Operating on nerves: Surgical approaches, primary and secondary repair, nerve grafting and nerve transfer

Timothy Hems
Exploration and repair of nerves requires specialized equipment, detailed anatomical knowledge, and expertise in microsurgery. This chapter includes details of a primary and secondary repair of nerves. Nerve repairs are most often carried out using sutures, but alternative methods of coaptation are reviewed. The management of nerve defects is discussed and techniques for nerve grafting are described.

Compression neuropathies of the radial nerve

Anthony Barabas & Mark Pickford
The commonest cause of radial nerve dysfunction is from extrinsic compressions of the radial nerve, such as against the shaft of the humerus in “Saturday night palsy”. However, this chapter focuses on the less common intrinsic compression neuropathies of the radial nerve. Intrinsic radial nerve compression neuropathies occur much less frequently than those of the median or ulnar nerves. The combined annual incidence of compressive neuropathies of the posterior interosseous nerve and the superficial radial...

Spectrum and antibiotic resistance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections

Béla Köves, András Magyar & Peter Tenke
Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are amongst the most common nosocomial infections and are also considered among the most common complications associated with indwelling urinary catheters. Most catheter associated infections are derived from the patient’s own perineal flora, however the presence of a catheter increases the chance of being colonised by cross transmission of nosocomial bacteria as well. Most episodes of short-term catheter-associated bacteriuria are asymptomatic and are caused by single organisms, while long-term...

Quality of life and relationships in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: models of self-regulation and psychosocial risk factors

Dean Tripp, Alison Crawford & J. Curtis Nickel
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a condition marked by persistent pain in the perineum, pelvic area, and/or genitalia. The etiology of CP/CPPS remains unknown, making it a difficult to diagnose and to treat. CP/CPPS should not be viewed solely as a physical phenomenon, as psychological and social factors impact the patient’s experience of the disease. Instead, examining CP/CPPS from a biopsychosocial perspective lets us understand illness as a dynamic process that integrates biological,...

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) – Updating a concise overview for urologists

Peter Schneede
Worldwide more than 1 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired every day. Given the growing rate of antimicrobial resistance of STIs and otherwise the effective improvements in STD laboratory testing, in STI treatment, and in STI prevention in the last decades urologists need to be periodically updated in this field. This article straightforwardly continues an Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Working Group (EAU) STD review, 2003, which has been updated in 2010, and which now...

Asymptomatic bacteriuria in recurrent UTI – to treat or not to treat

Tommaso Cai & Riccardo Bartoletti
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is a common clinical condition that often leads to unnecessary antimicrobial use. The reduction of antibiotic overuse for ABU is consequently an important issue for antimicrobial stewardship to reduce the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. In the clinical setting we have an important issue that requires special attention: the role of ABU in women affected by recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs). In everyday clinical practice, young women affected by rUTI show after...

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