Chemical skin defence in the Eastern fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: an ultrastructural approach to the mechanism of poison gland rehabilitation after discharge

Sara Quagliata, Cecilia Malentacchi, Filippo Giachi & Giovanni Delfino
Type I serous glands in the skin of the Eastern yellow-bellied toad Bombina orientalis released their product massively after 10-3 M nor-adrenalin (NA) stimulation, mimicking orthosympathetic control on poison emission in chemical skin defence. Features of cutaneous glands involved in this bulk discharge were observed under light and electron microscopes. Furthermore, restoration of depleted glands was followed after 1, 2 and 3 weeks, and compared with serous biosynthesis during larval gland development. Bulk discharge was...
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