Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite by human spermatozoa: a role in male infertility?

Eleonora Salvolini, Arianna Vignini, Guendalina Lucarini, Eddi Buldreghini, Monia Orciani & Giancarlo Balercia
A growing body of evidence confirms the importance of oxidative stress in male infertility (Agarwal and Saleh, 2002). Spermatozoa generate small amounts of O2·- and nitric oxide (NO), that, at high concentrations, combine to produce peroxynitrite, which can rapidly react with proteins, lipids, and DNA. In particular, the nitration of protein residues gives rise to 3-nitrotyrosine, a widely used marker of peroxynitrite production. NO is produced by three isoforms of NO synthase (NOS). The inducible...
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