Toll-like receptor-4 expression by hepatic progenitor cells and biliary epithelial cells in HCV-related chronic liver disease

Simone Carotti, Umberto Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Andrea Onetti-Muda, Maria Ujue Latasa, Matias A. Avila, Guido Carpino, Antonio Picardi & Sergio Morini
Background. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is a transmembrane pattern recognition receptor that plays a key role in innate immunity by triggering inflammatory responses to Gram negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1). Since liver is the main clearance organ for LPS, which is excreted in large amounts in the bile (2), it is not surprising that TLR4 has been involved in the pathogenesis of most liver diseases (3). Numerous evidences suggest a role for TLR4 in the pathogenesis...
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