Improvement of control performance of tuned liquid column dampers in buildings under earthquake excitations

In previous research, predication of the natural frequency of tuned liquid column dampers (TLCDs) including a liquid column vibration absorbers (LCVA) is based on the assumption that the liquid velocity within each leg of these dampers is constant and the transition between the vertical and horizontal flows occurs at a single point. This assumption is valid for a TLCD and LCVA when the widths of both the horizontal cross-over duct and vertical columns are small...
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