Biotechnological strategies for the recovery of valuable and critical raw materials from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) - A review

Arda Işıldar, Eric D. van Hullebusch, Markus Lenz, Gijs Du Laing, Alessandra Marra, Alessandra Cesaro, Sandeep Panda, Ata Akcil, Mehmet Ali Kücüker & Kerstin Kuchta
Critical raw materials (CRMs) are essential in the development of novel high-tech applications. They are essential in sustainable materials and green technologies, including renewable energy, emissionfree electric vehicles and energy-efficient lighting. However, the sustainable supply of CRMs is a major concern. Recycling end-of-life devices is an integral element of the CRMs supply policy of many countries. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is an important secondary source of CRMs. Currently, pyrometallurgical processes are used to...
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