Understanding bias in relationships between the food environment and diet quality: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

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Background The relationship between food environment exposures and diet behaviours is unclear, possibly because the majority of studies ignore potential residual confounding. Methods We used 20 years (1985-1986, 1992-1993 2005-2006) of data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study across four US cities (Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Oakland, California) and instrumental variables (IV) regression to obtain causal estimates of longitudinal associations between the percentage of neighbourhood food outlets (per...
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