A proof that multiple waves propagate in ensemble-averaged particulate materials.

Artur L Gower, Ian Abrahams & William J Parnell
Effective medium theory aims to describe a complex inhomogeneous material in terms of a few important macroscopic parameters. To characterize wave propagation through an inhomogeneous material, the most crucial parameter is the effective wavenumber. For this reason, there are many published studies on how to calculate a single effective wavenumber. Here, we present a proof that there does not exist a unique effective wavenumber; instead, there are an infinite number of such (complex) wavenumbers. We...
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