Belief or Leisure: The Evolution of Miaofeng Mountain Temple Festival in the Last Century

Yaofeng Wang & Yongyi Yue
The Miaofeng Mountain temple festival is based on Bixia Yuanjun 碧霞元君, known as Laoniangniang 老娘娘, belief in Beijing-Tianjin area. The paper discusses its historical changes and transformation through methods of text analysis and fieldwork. The historical changes of Miaofeng Mountain temple festival are organized as follow: 1) its origin, 2) the space-time distribution, 3) the ritualized behavior and interactive mode of incense organizations (Xianghui, 香会) and unorganized discrete pilgrims when offering incense and sacrifices, and...
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